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Article

Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antiplasmodial Activities of Xanthones Isolated from Garcinia forbesii and Their In Silico Studies

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Data Analytics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
2
Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering Technology, University Halmahera, Jalan Wari-Ino, Tobelo, North Halmahera 97762, Indonesia
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Stefania Sinicropi
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101380
Received: 13 September 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 1 October 2021 / Published: 2 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Compounds with Medicinal Value)
This study aimed to isolate xanthones from Garcinia forbesii and evaluated their activity in vitro and in silico. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. The antidiabetic activity was performed against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated using Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 sensitive to chloroquine. Molecular docking analysis on the human lysosomal acid-alpha-glucosidase enzyme (5NN8) and P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (1CET) and prediction of ADMET for the active compound, were also studied. For the first time, lichexanthone (1), subelliptenone H (2), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (3), garciniaxanthone B (4) and garcigerin A (5) were isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of the stem bark of G. forbesii. Four xanthones (Compounds 25) showed strong antioxidant activity. In vitro α-glucosidase test showed that Compounds 2 and 5 were more active than the others, while Compound 4 was the strongest against α-amylase enzymes. In vitro antiplasmodial evaluation revealed that Compounds 2 and 3 showed inhibitory activity on P. falciparum. Molecular docking studies confirmed in vitro activity. ADMET predictions suggested that Compounds 15 were potential candidates for oral drugs. The isolated 25 can be used as promising phytotherapy in antidiabetic and antiplasmodial treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Garcinia forbesii; xanthones; antioxidant; antidiabetic; antiplasmodial; molecular docking Garcinia forbesii; xanthones; antioxidant; antidiabetic; antiplasmodial; molecular docking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wairata, J.; Sukandar, E.R.; Fadlan, A.; Purnomo, A.S.; Taher, M.; Ersam, T. Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antiplasmodial Activities of Xanthones Isolated from Garcinia forbesii and Their In Silico Studies. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101380

AMA Style

Wairata J, Sukandar ER, Fadlan A, Purnomo AS, Taher M, Ersam T. Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antiplasmodial Activities of Xanthones Isolated from Garcinia forbesii and Their In Silico Studies. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(10):1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101380

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wairata, Johanis, Edwin R. Sukandar, Arif Fadlan, Adi S. Purnomo, Muhammad Taher, and Taslim Ersam. 2021. "Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antiplasmodial Activities of Xanthones Isolated from Garcinia forbesii and Their In Silico Studies" Biomedicines 9, no. 10: 1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101380

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