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Article

Novel Blood-Derived Extracellular Vesicle-Based Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease Identified by Proximity Extension Assay

1
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
2
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
3
BioXpedia A/S, DK-8200 Aarhus, Denmark
4
Department of Neurology, Aalborg University Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
5
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Aalborg University Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
6
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark
7
Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark
8
Unit of Clinical Biostatistics, Aalborg University Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(7), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8070199
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
Easily accessible biomarkers for Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) are lacking and established clinical markers are limited in applicability. Blood is a common biofluid for biomarker discoveries, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) may provide a matrix for exploring AD related biomarkers. Thus, we investigated proteins related to neurological and inflammatory processes in plasma and EVs. By proximity extension assay (PEA), 182 proteins were measured in plasma and EVs from patients with AD (n = 10), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 10). Plasma-derived EVs were enriched by 20,000× g, 1 h, 4 °C, and confirmed using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy with immunolabelling (IEM). Presence of CD9+ EVs was confirmed by western blotting and IEM. No group differences in particle concentration or size were detected by NTA. However, significant protein profiles were observed among subjects, particularly for EVs. Several proteins and their ratios could distinguish cognitively affected from healthy individuals. For plasma TGF-α│CCL20 (AUC = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.88–1.00, p = 0.001) and EVs CLEC1B│CCL11 (AUC = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86–1.00, p = 0.001) showed diagnostic capabilities. Using PEA, we identified protein profiles capable of distinguishing healthy controls from AD patients. EVs provided additional biological information related to AD not observed in plasma alone. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer; proximity extension assay; plasma; extracellular vesicles; biomarkers; mild cognitive impairment; protein Alzheimer; proximity extension assay; plasma; extracellular vesicles; biomarkers; mild cognitive impairment; protein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ellegaard Nielsen, J.; Sofie Pedersen, K.; Vestergård, K.; Georgiana Maltesen, R.; Christiansen, G.; Lundbye-Christensen, S.; Moos, T.; Risom Kristensen, S.; Pedersen, S. Novel Blood-Derived Extracellular Vesicle-Based Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease Identified by Proximity Extension Assay. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8070199

AMA Style

Ellegaard Nielsen J, Sofie Pedersen K, Vestergård K, Georgiana Maltesen R, Christiansen G, Lundbye-Christensen S, Moos T, Risom Kristensen S, Pedersen S. Novel Blood-Derived Extracellular Vesicle-Based Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease Identified by Proximity Extension Assay. Biomedicines. 2020; 8(7):199. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8070199

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ellegaard Nielsen, Jonas; Sofie Pedersen, Kamilla; Vestergård, Karsten; Georgiana Maltesen, Raluca; Christiansen, Gunna; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Moos, Torben; Risom Kristensen, Søren; Pedersen, Shona. 2020. "Novel Blood-Derived Extracellular Vesicle-Based Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease Identified by Proximity Extension Assay" Biomedicines 8, no. 7: 199. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8070199

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