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Review

The Link between Chronic Stress and Accelerated Aging

1
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia
2
Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Center, Moscow 121609, Russia
3
National Medical Research Center of Cardiology, Institute of Experimental Cardiology, Moscow 121552, Russia
4
Institute of Gene Biology, Center of Collective Usage, Moscow 119334, Russia
5
Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow 125315, Russia
6
Institute of Human Morphology, 3 Tsyurupa Street, Moscow 117418, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(7), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8070198
Received: 11 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macrophages in Health and Non-infectious Disease)
People exposed to chronic stress age rapidly. The telomeres in their cells of all types shorten faster. Inflammation is another important feature of stress that, along with aging, accounts for the phenomenon of inflammaging. In addition to aging itself, inflammaging can contribute to the development of several pathologies, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, and others. Oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms related to stress. Oxidative stress is caused by the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage various tissues. The main source of ROS is mitochondria. Being suppressed by mitochondrial mutations, mitophagy can aggravate the situation. In this case, the aging-specific pro-inflammatory changes are amplified. It happens because of the inability of cells to maintain the normal state of mitochondria. Macrophages are the crucial element of the innate immunity associated with the chronic inflammation and, subsequently, with the inflammaging. In this review, we focus on the therapy approaches potentially reducing the deleterious effects of oxidative stress. These include stimulation of mitophagy, activation of mitochondrial uncoupling, induction of the expression of the telomerase catalytic component gene, and use of antioxidants. Any method reducing oxidative stress should improve post-traumatic stress disorder. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammaging; ROS; mitochondria; oxidative stress; mitophagy; uncoupling; antioxidants; macrophage inflammaging; ROS; mitochondria; oxidative stress; mitophagy; uncoupling; antioxidants; macrophage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yegorov, Y.E.; Poznyak, A.V.; Nikiforov, N.G.; Sobenin, I.A.; Orekhov, A.N. The Link between Chronic Stress and Accelerated Aging. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 198. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8070198

AMA Style

Yegorov YE, Poznyak AV, Nikiforov NG, Sobenin IA, Orekhov AN. The Link between Chronic Stress and Accelerated Aging. Biomedicines. 2020; 8(7):198. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8070198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yegorov, Yegor E., Anastasia V. Poznyak, Nikita G. Nikiforov, Igor A. Sobenin, and Alexander N. Orekhov 2020. "The Link between Chronic Stress and Accelerated Aging" Biomedicines 8, no. 7: 198. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8070198

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