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Flavolignans from Silymarin as Nrf2 Bioactivators and Their Therapeutic Applications

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Laboratorio de Medicina de Conservación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México Escuela Superior de Medicina, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón, Col. Casco de Santo Tomás, Alcaldía Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City 11340, Mexico
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Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz s/n esquina Miguel Othón de Mendizabal, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico City CP 07738, Mexico
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Licenciatura en Nutrición, Universidad Intercontinental, Insurgentes Sur 4303, Santa Úrsula Xitla, Alcaldía Tlalpan, Mexico City CP 14420, Mexico
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Academia de Fisiología Humana, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón, Col. Casco de Santo Tomás, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City 11340, Mexico
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Centro de Investigación Interdisciplinario, Área Académica de Nutrición, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Circuito Actopan-Tilcuauttla, s/n, Ex hacienda La Concepción, San Agustín Tlaxiaca, Hidalgo CP 42160, Mexico
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Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, “Unidad Profesional A. López Mateos”. Av. Wilfrido Massieu. Col., Zacatenco, Mexico City 07738, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to the work.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050122
Received: 5 March 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Compounds in Biomedicine)
Silymarin (SM) is a mixture of flavolignans extracted from the seeds of species derived from Silybum marianum, commonly known as milk thistle or St. Mary’sthistle. These species have been widely used in the treatment of liver disorders in traditional medicine since ancient times. Several properties had been attributed to the major SM flavolignans components, identified as silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, isosilychristin, and silydianin. Previous research reported antioxidant and protective activities, which are probably related to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), known as a master regulator of the cytoprotector response. Nrf2 is a redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor able to induce the downstream-associated genes. The disruption of Nrf2 signaling has been associated with different pathological conditions. Some identified phytochemicals from SM had shown to participate in the Nrf2 signaling pathway; in particular, they have been suggested as activators that disrupt interactions in the Keap1-Nrf2 system, but also as antioxidants or with additional actions regarding Nrf2 regulation. Thus, the study of these molecules makes them appear attractive as novel targets for the treatment or prevention of several diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: silymarin; flavolignans; Nrf2; antioxidants; bioactivators silymarin; flavolignans; Nrf2; antioxidants; bioactivators
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Vargas-Mendoza, N.; Morales-González, Á.; Morales-Martínez, M.; Soriano-Ursúa, M.A.; Delgado-Olivares, L.; Sandoval-Gallegos, E.M.; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E.; Álvarez-González, I.; Madrigal-Santillán, E.; Morales-Gonzalez, J.A. Flavolignans from Silymarin as Nrf2 Bioactivators and Their Therapeutic Applications. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 122.

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