Next Article in Journal
Role of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Signaling in Gastrointestinal Cancers
Previous Article in Journal
Diagnosis and Management of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Open AccessArticle

Olfactory Stimulation Effect of Aldehydes, Nonanal, and Decanal on the Human Electroencephalographic Activity, According to Nostril Variation

School of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
Department of Botany, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029, India
Foundation of Agri. Ech. Commercialization & Transfer (FACT), Iksan 54667, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 57;
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
PDF [2205 KB, uploaded 31 July 2019]


Fragrances play a pivotal role in humans’ psychological and physiological functions through the olfactory system. Aldehydes are important organic compounds with a variety of fragrance notes. Particularly, nonanal (C9) and decanal (C10) aldehydes are important natural fragrant components used to enhance floral, as well as citrus notes in perfumery products. In general, each nostril of the human nose is tuned to smell certain odor molecules better than others due to slight turbinate swelling between the nostrils. Hence, the objective of the present investigation was aimed to evaluate the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations of C9 and C10 aldehydes on human electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Twenty healthy participants (10 males and 10 females) participated in this study. The EEG readings were recorded from 8 electrodes (QEEG-8 system) according to the International 10-20 System. The results revealed that C10 exposure exhibited significantly different EEG changes, during binasal and uninasal inhalations. In different brain regions, C10 odor markedly decreased the absolute alpha and absolute beta power spectra. In regards to C9 odor, significant changes of EEG power spectra were noticed only during binasal inhalation. In addition, C10 mainly produced changes at the left parietal site (P3) than other brain sites. In conclusion, the variations in EEG activities of C9 and C10 aldehydes might be owing to their characteristic fragrance quality, as well as the influence of nostril differences. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroencephalography; decanal; inhalation; nonanal; nostril electroencephalography; decanal; inhalation; nonanal; nostril

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, M.; Sowndhararajan, K.; Choi, H.J.; Park, S.J.; Kim, S. Olfactory Stimulation Effect of Aldehydes, Nonanal, and Decanal on the Human Electroencephalographic Activity, According to Nostril Variation. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 57.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biomedicines EISSN 2227-9059 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top