Next Article in Journal
Olfactory Stimulation Effect of Aldehydes, Nonanal, and Decanal on the Human Electroencephalographic Activity, According to Nostril Variation
Previous Article in Journal
A Mini-Review: Clinical Development and Potential of Aptamers for Thrombotic Events Treatment and Monitoring
Previous Article in Special Issue
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Anti-MOG Syndromes
Open AccessReview

Diagnosis and Management of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 56;
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 26 July 2019 / Published: 29 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis and Treatment)
PDF [538 KB, uploaded 30 July 2019]


Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that results in varying degrees of disability. Progressive multiple sclerosis, characterized by a steady increase in neurological disability independently of relapses, can occur from onset (primary progressive) or after a relapsing–remitting course (secondary progressive). As opposed to active inflammation seen in the relapsing–remitting phases of the disease, the gradual worsening of disability in progressive multiple sclerosis results from complex immune mechanisms and neurodegeneration. A few anti-inflammatory disease-modifying therapies with a modest but significant effect on measures of disease progression have been approved for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis. The treatment effect of anti-inflammatory agents is particularly observed in the subgroup of patients with younger age and evidence of disease activity. For this reason, a significant effort is underway to develop molecules with the potential to induce myelin repair or halt the degenerative process. Appropriate trial methodology and the development of clinically meaningful disability outcome measures along with imaging and biological biomarkers of progression have a significant impact on the ability to measure the efficacy of potential medications that may reverse disease progression. In this issue, we will review current evidence on the physiopathology, diagnosis, measurement of disability, and treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: progressive multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration; remyelination; outcome measures; biomarkers progressive multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration; remyelination; outcome measures; biomarkers

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Macaron, G.; Ontaneda, D. Diagnosis and Management of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 56.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biomedicines EISSN 2227-9059 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top