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Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020070

Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities of Citrus Water-Extracts Obtained by Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Methods

1
Institute of Sciences of Food Production (CNR-ISPA) National Council of Research, Via G. Amendola, 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
2
Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Studies of Bari Aldo Moro, Via E. Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
3
Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories & Herbal Analysis Services, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham-Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Biomedicines)
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Abstract

Citrus pomace is a huge agro-food industrial waste mostly composed of peels and traditionally used as compost or animal feed. Owing to its high content of compounds beneficial to humans (e.g., flavonoids, phenol-like acids, and terpenoids), citrus waste is increasingly used to produce valuable supplements, fragrance, or antimicrobials. However, such processes require sustainable and efficient extraction strategies by solvent-free techniques for environmentally-friendly good practices. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of water extracts of three citrus peels (orange, lemon, and citron) against ten different sanitary relevant bacteria. Both conventional extraction methods using hot water (HWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used. Even though no extract fully inhibited the growth of the target bacteria, these latter (mostly pseudomonads) showed a significant reduction in biofilm biomass. The most active extracts were obtained from orange and lemon peel by using MAE at 100 °C for 8 min. These results showed that citrus peel water infusions by MAE may reduce biofilm formation possibly enhancing the susceptibility of sanitary-related bacteria to disinfection procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: citron; lemon; orange; solvent-free extraction; pseudomonads; staphylococci; Escherichia citron; lemon; orange; solvent-free extraction; pseudomonads; staphylococci; Escherichia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Caputo, L.; Quintieri, L.; Cavalluzzi, M.M.; Lentini, G.; Habtemariam, S. Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities of Citrus Water-Extracts Obtained by Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Methods. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 70.

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