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Article

A Novel Role of Galectin-3 and Thyroglobulin in Prognosis and Differentiation of Different Stages of Thyroid Cancer and Elucidation of the Potential Contribution of Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-α

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, Egypt
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Port Said University, Port Said 42515, Egypt
3
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kasr Al-Ainy Medical School, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt
4
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21959, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied medical sciences, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag 82524, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Su Woong Yoo
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020352
Received: 3 January 2022 / Revised: 28 January 2022 / Accepted: 29 January 2022 / Published: 1 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Thyroid Cancer: From Diagnosis to Treatment)
Thyroid cancer is among the most prevalent cancers with different types and stages. New markers are required for the prognosis and diagnosis of the disease. The present study aimed to detect the role of new markers, including galectin-3 (Gal-3) and thyroglobulin (TG), in the prognosis and staging of thyroid cancer. The study also investigated the potential apoptotic and inflammatory mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer through the determination of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) during the different stages of the cancer using a series of molecular methods. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were also performed. A total of 300 subjects were classified into: 100 normal healthy subjects matched in age and sex, 100 patients with thyroid carcinoma stage I (T1N0M0) and 100 patients with thyroid carcinoma stage 2 (T2N1M1). Interestingly, the present study revealed a significant increase in the levels of TG and Gal-3 in thyroid cancer patients compared to the control group. Furthermore, the levels of Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-α significantly increased in the patient serum. The histopathological examination and immunohistochemical observations confirmed the molecular and hematological findings. Collectively, the present study concluded that serum TG and Gal-3 could be useful markers in the prognosis and staging of patients with thyroid cancer. Furthermore, the determination of Bax, Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-α levels constitute a major important marker for investigation of the mechanisms of apoptosis and inflammation in thyroid cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first study that used both galectin-3 and TG as tumor markers in the prognosis and differentiation between the different stages of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: thyroid cancer; thyroglobulin; interleukin-8; galectin-3; TNF-α thyroid cancer; thyroglobulin; interleukin-8; galectin-3; TNF-α
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okda, T.M.; Atwa, G.M.K.; Eldehn, A.F.; Dahran, N.; Alsharif, K.F.; Elmahallawy, E.K. A Novel Role of Galectin-3 and Thyroglobulin in Prognosis and Differentiation of Different Stages of Thyroid Cancer and Elucidation of the Potential Contribution of Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-α. Biomedicines 2022, 10, 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020352

AMA Style

Okda TM, Atwa GMK, Eldehn AF, Dahran N, Alsharif KF, Elmahallawy EK. A Novel Role of Galectin-3 and Thyroglobulin in Prognosis and Differentiation of Different Stages of Thyroid Cancer and Elucidation of the Potential Contribution of Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-α. Biomedicines. 2022; 10(2):352. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020352

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okda, Tarek M., Gamal M. K. Atwa, Ahmed Fathy Eldehn, Naief Dahran, Khalaf F Alsharif, and Ehab Kotb Elmahallawy. 2022. "A Novel Role of Galectin-3 and Thyroglobulin in Prognosis and Differentiation of Different Stages of Thyroid Cancer and Elucidation of the Potential Contribution of Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-α" Biomedicines 10, no. 2: 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020352

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