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Article

Quantitative Assessment of Periodontal Bacteria Using a Cell-Based Immunoassay with Functionalized Quartz Crystal Microbalance

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Biomedical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan
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Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
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Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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Biosensors and Bioanalytical Technology for Cells and Innovative Testing Device Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raffaele Velotta
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070159
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 22 June 2021 / Published: 25 June 2021
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disorder that is triggered by bacterial plaque and causes the destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues leading to tooth loss. Several bacteria species, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, are considered to be associated with severe periodontal conditions. In this study, we demonstrated a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunoassay for quantitative assessment of the periodontal bacteria, A. actinomycetemcomitans. An immunosensor was constructed using a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) on the gold surface of a QCM chip. The 11-MUA layer was evaluated using a cyclic voltammetry technique to determine its mass and packing density. Next, a monoclonal antibody was covalently linked to 11-MUA using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide to act as the biorecognition element. The specificity of the monoclonal antibody was confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A calibration curve, for the relationship between the frequency shifts and number of bacteria, was used to calculate the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans bacteria in a test sample. Based on a regression equation, the lower detection limit was 800 cells, with a dynamic range up to 2.32 × 106 cells. Thus, the QCM biosensor in this study provides a sensitive and label-free method for quantitative analysis of periodontal bacteria. The method can be used in various biosensing assays for practical application and routine detection of periodontitis pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: periodontal bacteria; immunoassays; quartz crystal microbalance biosensors periodontal bacteria; immunoassays; quartz crystal microbalance biosensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodphukdeekul, S.; Tabata, M.; Ratanaporncharoen, C.; Takeuchi, Y.; Somboon, P.; Boonlue, W.; Miyahara, Y.; Sriyudthsak, M. Quantitative Assessment of Periodontal Bacteria Using a Cell-Based Immunoassay with Functionalized Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Chemosensors 2021, 9, 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070159

AMA Style

Rodphukdeekul S, Tabata M, Ratanaporncharoen C, Takeuchi Y, Somboon P, Boonlue W, Miyahara Y, Sriyudthsak M. Quantitative Assessment of Periodontal Bacteria Using a Cell-Based Immunoassay with Functionalized Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Chemosensors. 2021; 9(7):159. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070159

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodphukdeekul, Satit, Miyuki Tabata, Chindanai Ratanaporncharoen, Yasuo Takeuchi, Pakpum Somboon, Watcharee Boonlue, Yuji Miyahara, and Mana Sriyudthsak. 2021. "Quantitative Assessment of Periodontal Bacteria Using a Cell-Based Immunoassay with Functionalized Quartz Crystal Microbalance" Chemosensors 9, no. 7: 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9070159

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