Carbon nanomaterials offer unique opportunities for the assembling of electrochemical aptasensors due to their high electroconductivity, redox activity, compatibility with biochemical receptors and broad possibilities of functionalization and combination with other auxiliary reagents. In this review, the progress in the development of electrochemical aptasensors based on carbon nanomaterials in 2016–2020 is considered with particular emphasis on the role of carbon materials in aptamer immobilization and signal generation. The synthesis and properties of carbon nanotubes, graphene materials, carbon nitride, carbon black particles and fullerene are described and their implementation in the electrochemical biosensors are summarized. Examples of electrochemical aptasensors are classified in accordance with the content of the surface layer and signal measurement mode. In conclusion, the drawbacks and future prospects of carbon nanomaterials’ application in electrochemical aptasensors are briefly discussed.
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