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From Gas Sensors to Biomimetic Artificial Noses

Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Biosensor Technologies, Konrad-Lorenzstraße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 32;
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
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Since the first attempts to mimic the human nose with artificial devices, a variety of sensors have been developed, ranging from simple inorganic and organic gas detectors to biosensing elements incorporating proteins of the biological olfactory system. In order to design a device able to mimic the human nose, two major issues still need to be addressed regarding the complexity of olfactory coding and the extreme sensitivity of the biological system. So far, only 50 of the approximately 300–400 functioning olfactory receptors have been de-orphanized, still a long way from breaking the human olfactory code. On the other hand, the exceptional sensitivity of the human nose is based on amplification mechanisms difficult to reproduce with electronic circuits, and perhaps novel approaches are required to address this issue. Here, we review the recent literature on chemical sensing both in biological systems and artificial devices, and try to establish the state-of-the-art towards the design of an electronic nose. View Full-Text
Keywords: olfactory code; olfactory receptors; odorant-binding proteins; electronic nose; biosensors; chemical sensors olfactory code; olfactory receptors; odorant-binding proteins; electronic nose; biosensors; chemical sensors

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Pelosi, P.; Zhu, J.; Knoll, W. From Gas Sensors to Biomimetic Artificial Noses. Chemosensors 2018, 6, 32.

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