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Article

SARS-CoV-2: Origin, Intermediate Host and Allergenicity Features and Hypotheses

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The Second Affiliated Hospital, The State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510260, China
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Wuhan Regional Climate Center, Wuhan 430074, China
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The State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mariano Cingolani and Francesco Sessa
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091132
Received: 13 November 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2021 / Accepted: 27 August 2021 / Published: 30 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Coronaviruses (CoV) and COVID-19 Pandemic)
The goal of this study is to investigate the probable intermediate hosts and the allergenicity of the notorious virus SARS-CoV-2 to understand how this virus emerged. The phylogenetic analysis of the virus spike proteins indicates that SARS-CoV-2 falls into various small subclades that include a bat coronavirus RaTG13, suggesting bats as a likely natural origin. Refined alignment of the spike protein in NCBI found several fragments that are specific to SARS-CoV-2 and/or SARS-CoV are specific to Rattus norvegicus and/or Mus musculus, suggesting that rodents are the intermediate reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. To evaluate the allergenicity values, the binding affinities of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I or II molecules with the spike proteins were calculated, and the results showed that both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are predicted to bind to fourteen HLA class I and II molecules with super-high HLA allele-peptide affinities. The infection rate of individuals who have HLA alleles with very high binding affinities who might become infected and develop into refractory patients if there were no medical or non-medical interventions is about 7.36% and 4.78% of Chinese and Americans, respectively. Extremely high temperature and exceptionally low precipitation, the common climate factors between the outbreak sites of COVID-19 in Wuhan in 2019 and SARS in Guangdong in 2002, might have promoted coronavirus evolution into more virulent forms. Our hypothesis suggests that early immunization with an allergenically-engineered virus, in combination with continued surveillance of meteorological factors and viral mutations, may be one of the most powerful prophylactic modalities to fight this virus. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; spike protein; intermediary reservoir; allergenicity; MHC binding affinity; self-limitation; spontaneous mutation; early immunization SARS-CoV-2; spike protein; intermediary reservoir; allergenicity; MHC binding affinity; self-limitation; spontaneous mutation; early immunization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, Y.; Xie, J.; Guo, Y.; Sun, W.; He, Y.; Liu, K.; Yan, J.; Tao, A.; Zhong, N. SARS-CoV-2: Origin, Intermediate Host and Allergenicity Features and Hypotheses. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091132

AMA Style

Huang Y, Xie J, Guo Y, Sun W, He Y, Liu K, Yan J, Tao A, Zhong N. SARS-CoV-2: Origin, Intermediate Host and Allergenicity Features and Hypotheses. Healthcare. 2021; 9(9):1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Yuyi, Junmou Xie, Yuhe Guo, Weimin Sun, Ying He, Kequn Liu, Jie Yan, Ailin Tao, and Nanshan Zhong. 2021. "SARS-CoV-2: Origin, Intermediate Host and Allergenicity Features and Hypotheses" Healthcare 9, no. 9: 1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091132

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