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Polish Adaptation of the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire—Revised 2 for All Pregnant Women

Department of Obstetrical and Gynaecological Nursing, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk, Poland
Department of Quality of Life Research, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-210 Gdansk, Poland
Institute of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
Department of Gynaecology, Oncologic Gynaecology and Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-214 Gdansk, Poland
Department of Clinical Developmental Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alyx Taylor and Pedram Sendi
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 917;
Received: 9 June 2021 / Revised: 14 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Stress Management for Health)
Pregnancy-related anxiety (PrA) is a specific type of anxiety characteristic of the perinatal period. PrA can affect pregnancy and birth. However, no validated tool exists to measure PrA in Polish obstetric practice. The aim of this study was to translate the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire—Revised 2 (PRAQ-R2) into Polish and to evaluate its reliability and factorial and construct validity. This study was conducted in Poland as an online questionnaire in April 2020 and included 175 healthy women. To validate the PRAQ-R2, we used standardized tools for the measurement of general anxiety: the modified Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Scale reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Concurrent validity was evaluated by calculating Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients. Statistical analyses were performed using R ver. 4.0.2. Values for comparative fit index >0.90, Tucker–Lewis index >0.90, and root mean square error of approximation <0.08 indicated acceptable model fit, confirming the reliability of the three-factor structure of the translation. The subscales and total scores had good consistency (α > 0.7), and convergent validity was demonstrated. The PRAQ-R2 as translated into Polish represents the first validated tool in Poland to measure PrA for all pregnant women. View Full-Text
Keywords: childbirth; fear of childbirth; pregnancy-related anxiety childbirth; fear of childbirth; pregnancy-related anxiety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Michalik, A.; Wójcicka, L.; Zdun-Ryżewska, A.; Czerwińska-Osipiak, A.; Krzemiński, M.; Olszewska, J.; Klasa-Mazurkiewicz, D.; Huizink, A.C. Polish Adaptation of the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire—Revised 2 for All Pregnant Women. Healthcare 2021, 9, 917.

AMA Style

Michalik A, Wójcicka L, Zdun-Ryżewska A, Czerwińska-Osipiak A, Krzemiński M, Olszewska J, Klasa-Mazurkiewicz D, Huizink AC. Polish Adaptation of the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire—Revised 2 for All Pregnant Women. Healthcare. 2021; 9(7):917.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Michalik, Anna, Lucyna Wójcicka, Agata Zdun-Ryżewska, Agnieszka Czerwińska-Osipiak, Michał Krzemiński, Jolanta Olszewska, Dagmara Klasa-Mazurkiewicz, and Anja C. Huizink. 2021. "Polish Adaptation of the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire—Revised 2 for All Pregnant Women" Healthcare 9, no. 7: 917.

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