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Review

Review of Pharmacotherapy for Tinnitus

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
2
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Arianna Di Stadio and Massimo Ralli
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060779
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Otolaryngology from Diagnosis to Treatment)
Various medications are currently used in the treatment of tinnitus, including anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, calcium channel blockers, cholinergic antagonists, NMDA antagonists, muscle relaxants, vasodilators, and vitamins. To date, however, no medications have been specifically approved to treat tinnitus by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, medicines used to treat other diseases, as well as foods and other ingested materials, can result in unwanted tinnitus. These include alcohol, antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agents and heavy metals, antimetabolites, antitumor agents, antibiotics, caffeine, cocaine, marijuana, nonnarcotic analgesics and antipyretics, ototoxic antibiotics and diuretics, oral contraceptives, quinine and chloroquine, and salicylates. This review, therefore, describes the medications currently used to treat tinnitus, including their mechanisms of action, therapeutic effects, dosages, and side-effects. In addition, this review describes the medications, foods, and other ingested agents that can induce unwanted tinnitus, as well as their mechanisms of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: tinnitus; pharmacotherapy tinnitus; pharmacotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, S.H.; Kim, D.; Lee, J.-M.; Lee, S.K.; Kang, H.J.; Yeo, S.G. Review of Pharmacotherapy for Tinnitus. Healthcare 2021, 9, 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060779

AMA Style

Kim SH, Kim D, Lee J-M, Lee SK, Kang HJ, Yeo SG. Review of Pharmacotherapy for Tinnitus. Healthcare. 2021; 9(6):779. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060779

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Sang H., Dokyoung Kim, Jae-Min Lee, Sun K. Lee, Hee J. Kang, and Seung G. Yeo. 2021. "Review of Pharmacotherapy for Tinnitus" Healthcare 9, no. 6: 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060779

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