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The Effects of Alcohol Hangover on Response Inhibition and Attentional Bias towards Alcohol-Related Stimuli
Article

Immune Responses after Heavy Alcohol Consumption: Cytokine Concentrations in Hangover-Sensitive and Hangover-Resistant Drinkers

1
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Global Centre of Excellence Immunology, Nutricia Danone Research, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Groningen University, 9700AB Groningen, The Netherlands
4
Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nandu Goswami
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040395
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 21 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Hangover Effects on Human Health)
This study investigated immunological changes during an alcohol hangover, and the possible difference between hangover-resistant and hangover-sensitive drinkers in terms of immune reactivity. Using a semi-naturalistic design, N = 36 healthy social drinkers (18 to 30 years old) provided saliva samples on a control day (after drinking no alcohol) and on a post-alcohol day. Hangover severity was rated directly after saliva collection. Cytokine concentrations, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and hangover severity were compared between both test days and between hangover-sensitive and -resistant drinkers. Data from N = 35 drinkers (17 hangover-sensitive and 18 hangover-resistant) were included in the statistical analyses. Relative to the control day, there were significant increases in saliva IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations on the post-alcohol day. No significant differences in cytokine concentrations were found between hangover-sensitive and hangover-resistant drinkers, nor did any change in cytokine concentration correlate significantly with hangover severity. In line with previous controlled studies assessing cytokines in blood, the current naturalistic study using saliva samples also demonstrated that the immune system responds to high-level alcohol intake. However, further research is warranted, as, in contrast to previous findings in blood samples, changes in saliva cytokine concentrations did not differ significantly between hangover-sensitive and hangover-resistant drinkers, nor did they correlate significantly with hangover severity. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; hangover; immune system; cytokine; hangover severity alcohol; hangover; immune system; cytokine; hangover severity
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MDPI and ACS Style

van de Loo, A.J.; Raasveld, S.J.; Hogewoning, A.; Zeeuw, R.d.; Bosma, E.R.; Bouwmeester, N.H.; Lukkes, M.; Knipping, K.; Mackus, M.; Kraneveld, A.D.; Brookhuis, K.A.; Garssen, J.; Scholey, A.; Verster, J.C. Immune Responses after Heavy Alcohol Consumption: Cytokine Concentrations in Hangover-Sensitive and Hangover-Resistant Drinkers. Healthcare 2021, 9, 395. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040395

AMA Style

van de Loo AJ, Raasveld SJ, Hogewoning A, Zeeuw Rd, Bosma ER, Bouwmeester NH, Lukkes M, Knipping K, Mackus M, Kraneveld AD, Brookhuis KA, Garssen J, Scholey A, Verster JC. Immune Responses after Heavy Alcohol Consumption: Cytokine Concentrations in Hangover-Sensitive and Hangover-Resistant Drinkers. Healthcare. 2021; 9(4):395. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040395

Chicago/Turabian Style

van de Loo, Aurora J., S. J. Raasveld, Anna Hogewoning, Raymond d. Zeeuw, Else R. Bosma, Noor H. Bouwmeester, Melanie Lukkes, Karen Knipping, Marlou Mackus, Aletta D. Kraneveld, Karel A. Brookhuis, Johan Garssen, Andrew Scholey, and Joris C. Verster 2021. "Immune Responses after Heavy Alcohol Consumption: Cytokine Concentrations in Hangover-Sensitive and Hangover-Resistant Drinkers" Healthcare 9, no. 4: 395. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040395

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