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Article

Mechanism of the Effect of High-Intensity Training on Urinary Metabolism in Female Water Polo Players Based on UHPLC-MS Non-Targeted Metabolomics Technique

1
College of Physicial Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
2
Department of health and Natural Sciences, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Filipe Manuel Clemente
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040381
Received: 27 February 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 21 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
Objective: To study the changes in urine metabolism in female water polo players before and after high-intensity training by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to explore the biometabolic characteristics of urine after training and competition. Methods: Twelve young female water polo players (except goalkeepers) from Shanxi Province were selected. A 4-week formal training was started after 1 week of acclimatization according to experimental requirements. Urine samples (5 mL) were collected before formal training, early morning after 4 weeks of training, and immediately after 4 weeks of training matches, and labeled as T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The samples were tested by LC-MS after pre-treatment. XCMS, SIMCA-P 14.1, and SPSS16.0 were used to process the data and identify differential metabolites. Results: On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the pre-training period (T3 vs. T1), 24 differential metabolites involved in 16 metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism and purine metabolism were potential post-competition urinary metabolic pathways in the untrained state of the athletes. On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the post-training period (T3 vs. T2), 10 metabolites involved in three metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism was a potential target urinary metabolic pathway for the athletes after training. Niacinamide, 1-methylnicotinamide, 2-pyridone, L-Gln, AMP, and Hx were involved in two metabolic pathways before and after the training. Conclusion: Differential changes in urine after water polo games are due to changes in the metabolic pathways of niacin and niacinamide. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-intensity training; LC-MS; urine; water polo high-intensity training; LC-MS; urine; water polo
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.-l.; Chen, A.-p.; Li, J.-y.; Sun, Z.; Yan, S.-l.; Xu, K.-y. Mechanism of the Effect of High-Intensity Training on Urinary Metabolism in Female Water Polo Players Based on UHPLC-MS Non-Targeted Metabolomics Technique. Healthcare 2021, 9, 381. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040381

AMA Style

Wang L-l, Chen A-p, Li J-y, Sun Z, Yan S-l, Xu K-y. Mechanism of the Effect of High-Intensity Training on Urinary Metabolism in Female Water Polo Players Based on UHPLC-MS Non-Targeted Metabolomics Technique. Healthcare. 2021; 9(4):381. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040381

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Lei-lei, An-ping Chen, Jian-ying Li, Zhuo Sun, Shi-liang Yan, and Kai-yuan Xu. 2021. "Mechanism of the Effect of High-Intensity Training on Urinary Metabolism in Female Water Polo Players Based on UHPLC-MS Non-Targeted Metabolomics Technique" Healthcare 9, no. 4: 381. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040381

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