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Article

Inequality in Health: The Correlation between Poverty and Injury—A Comprehensive Analysis Based on Income Level in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech), Taipei 10608, Taiwan
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Center for Healthcare Quality Management, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei 11220, Taiwan
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Department of Health Care Management, College of Health Technology, National Taipei University of Nursing and Heath Sciences, Taipei 10608, Taiwan
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Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei 24205, Taiwan
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Big Data Research Center, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei 24205, Taiwan
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School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
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Department of Medical Research, National Defense Medical Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
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Department of Microbiology & Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
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The Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Tittarelli
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030349
Received: 17 February 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequalities in Environmental Exposure and in Health Care)
Is income still an obstacle that influences health in Taiwan, the National Health Insurance system was instituted in 1995? After collecting injured inpatient data from the health insurance information of nearly the whole population, we categorized the cases as either low-income or nonlow-income and tried to determine the correlation between poverty and injury. Chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact tests, an independent-samples t-test, and percentages were used to identify differences in demographics, causes for hospitalization, and other hospital care variables. Between 1998 and 2015, there were 74,337 inpatients with low-income injuries, which represented 1.6% of all inpatients with injury events. The hospitalization mortality rate for the low-income group was 1.9 times higher than that of the nonlow-income group. Furthermore, the average length of hospital stay (9.9 days), average medical expenses (1681 USD), and mortality rate (3.6%) values for the low-income inpatients were higher than those of the nonlow-income group (7.6 days, 1573 USD, and 2.1%, respectively). Among the injury causes, the percentages of “fall,” “suicide,” and “homicide” incidences were higher for the low-income group than for the nonlow-income group. These findings support our hypothesis that there is a correlation between poverty and injury level, which results in health inequality. Achieving healthcare equality may require collaboration between the government and private and nonprofit organizations to increase the awareness of this phenomenon. View Full-Text
Keywords: health inequality; health care; low income; nonlow income; injured inpatient health inequality; health care; low income; nonlow income; injured inpatient
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, S.-H.; Hsing, S.-C.; Sun, C.-A.; Chung, C.-H.; Tsao, C.-H.; Chung, R.-J.; Wang, B.-L.; Huang, Y.-C.; Chien, W.-C. Inequality in Health: The Correlation between Poverty and Injury—A Comprehensive Analysis Based on Income Level in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study. Healthcare 2021, 9, 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030349

AMA Style

Huang S-H, Hsing S-C, Sun C-A, Chung C-H, Tsao C-H, Chung R-J, Wang B-L, Huang Y-C, Chien W-C. Inequality in Health: The Correlation between Poverty and Injury—A Comprehensive Analysis Based on Income Level in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study. Healthcare. 2021; 9(3):349. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030349

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Shi-Hao, Shih-Chun Hsing, Chien-An Sun, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Chang-Huei Tsao, Ren-Jei Chung, Bing-Long Wang, Yao-Ching Huang, and Wu-Chien Chien. 2021. "Inequality in Health: The Correlation between Poverty and Injury—A Comprehensive Analysis Based on Income Level in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study" Healthcare 9, no. 3: 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030349

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