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Article

Effectiveness, Cost-Utility, and Safety of Neurofeedback Self-Regulating Training in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Research Center of Traditional Korean Medicine, Wonkwang University, 460, Iksan-daero, Sin-dong, Iksan 54538, Jeollabuk-do, Korea
2
Jangheung Integrative Medical Hospital, Wonkwang University, 121, Rohaseu-ro, Anyang-myeon, Jangheung-gun 59338, Jeollanam-do, Korea
3
Department of Korean Neuropsychiatry Medicine, Wonkwang University, 460, Iksan-daero, Sin-dong, Iksan 54538, Jeollabuk-do, Korea
4
College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 100, Cheongpa-ro, Cheongpadong, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 04310, Korea
5
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Dongguk University Bundang Oriental Hospital, 268 Buljeong-ro Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si 13601, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work (co-first author).
Academic Editor: Alyx Taylor
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101351
Received: 11 September 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 7 October 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Related to Traumatic and Adverse Experiences)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by neurophysiological and psycho-emotional problems after exposure to trauma. Several pharmacological and psychotherapy limitations, such as adverse events and low adherence, increase the need for alternative therapeutic options. Neurofeedback is widely used for PTSD management. However, evidence of its clinical efficacy is lacking. We conducted a randomized, waitlist-controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to assess the effectiveness, cost-utility, and safety of 16 sessions of neurofeedback on people with PTSD for eight weeks. Eleven participants were allocated to each group. One and two subjects dropped out from the neurofeedback and control groups, respectively. The primary outcome was PTSD symptom change evaluated using the PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5-K). The PCL-5-K levels improved more in the neurofeedback group (44.3 ± 10.8 to 19.4 ± 7.75) than in the control group (35.1 ± 18.5 to 31.0 ± 14.92). The change value was significantly improved in the neurofeedback group (24.90 ± 13.13 vs. 4.11 ± 9.03). Secondary outcomes such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, and quality of life were also improved. In an economic analysis using EuroQol-5D, the incremental cost-per-quality-adjusted life-year was approximately $15,600, indicating acceptable cost-utility. There were no adverse events in either group. In conclusion, neurofeedback might be a useful, cost-effective, and safe intervention for PTSD management. View Full-Text
Keywords: cost-utility analysis; neurofeedback; post-traumatic stress disorder; quantitative electroencephalography; randomized controlled trial cost-utility analysis; neurofeedback; post-traumatic stress disorder; quantitative electroencephalography; randomized controlled trial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leem, J.; Cheong, M.J.; Lee, H.; Cho, E.; Lee, S.Y.; Kim, G.-W.; Kang, H.W. Effectiveness, Cost-Utility, and Safety of Neurofeedback Self-Regulating Training in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1351. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101351

AMA Style

Leem J, Cheong MJ, Lee H, Cho E, Lee SY, Kim G-W, Kang HW. Effectiveness, Cost-Utility, and Safety of Neurofeedback Self-Regulating Training in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Healthcare. 2021; 9(10):1351. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101351

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leem, Jungtae, Moon J. Cheong, Hyeryun Lee, Eun Cho, So Y. Lee, Geun-Woo Kim, and Hyung W. Kang. 2021. "Effectiveness, Cost-Utility, and Safety of Neurofeedback Self-Regulating Training in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial" Healthcare 9, no. 10: 1351. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101351

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