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Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 91;

Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan

Department of Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
The Faculty of Human Science Technology, Bunkyo Gakuin University, Tokyo 113-8668, Japan
NPO Sangath, Goa 403501, India
Kitamura Institute of Mental Health Tokyo, Tokyo 151-0063, Japan
Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shervin Assari
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Perinatal depression is prevalent worldwide. However, there are few available studies that discuss the different cultural factors affecting perinatal depression within Asian countries. This study aims to compare the literature regarding related factors relating to perinatal depression in India and Japan, and to synthesize the evidence common to both countries in addition to the country-specific evidence. We conducted a systematic review using several databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Ovid, SCOPUS, IndMED, and ICHUSI). Keywords were “antenatal depression” or “postpartum depression”, and “India” or “Japan”. Both Japanese and English language papers were reviewed. The identified evidence was compared between the two countries, as well as with non-Asian countries based on previous reports. In total, 15 articles on India and 35 on Japan were reviewed. Although several factors were shared between the two countries as well as with other non-Asian countries (vulnerable personality, being abused, age, marital conflict, and lower socio-demographic status), some differing factors were identified between India and Japan and non-Asian countries; India: poor socioeconomic status, living only with the husband, pregnancy not welcomed by the husband, a female baby, and poor relationship with in-laws; Japan: infertility treatment, conflict with work–life balance, poor relationships with biological mother or in-laws, and concerns about social relations with the other mother’s friends. To conclude, involving the family and community may be important for implementing both global standardized and culture-specific interventions. In India, treatment involving the in-laws may be effective because large family structure is a significant predictor of perinatal depression. In Japan, a family/community approach involving not only the mother’s family of origin but also the working environment is essential. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultural factors; India; Japan; perinatal depression; related factors; systematic review cultural factors; India; Japan; perinatal depression; related factors; systematic review

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Takegata, M.; Ohashi, Y.; Lazarus, A.; Kitamura, T. Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan. Healthcare 2017, 5, 91.

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