Next Article in Journal
The Impact of Hemodialysis on Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Gait and Role of Exercise: A Systematic Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Measuring Outcomes of Psychological Well-Being within Paediatric Health Settings
Previous Article in Journal
Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan
Previous Article in Special Issue
The New Old (and Old New) Medical Model: Four Decades Navigating the Biomedical and Psychosocial Understandings of Health and Illness
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 93;

Connecting the Mind–Body Split: Understanding the Relationship between Symptoms and Emotional Well-Being in Chronic Pain and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

Division of Psychology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, Child and Adolescent Psychological Services, London NW1 2PQ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sampath Parthasarathy
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [561 KB, uploaded 5 December 2017]   |  


Paediatric chronic conditions, e.g., chronic pain and functional gastrointestinal disorders, are commonly diagnosed, with fatigue, pain and abdominal discomfort the most frequently reported symptoms across conditions. Regardless of whether symptoms are connected to an underlying medical diagnosis or not, they are often associated with an increased experience of psychological distress by both the ill child and their parents. While pain and embarrassing symptoms can induce increased distress, evidence is also accumulating in support of a reciprocal relationship between pain and distress. This reciprocal relationship is nicely illustrated in the fear avoidance model of pain, which has recently been found to be applicable to childhood pain experiences. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how mind (i.e., emotions) and body (i.e., physical symptoms) interact using chronic pain and gastrointestinal disorders as key examples. Despite the evidence for the connection between mind and body, the mind–body split is still a dominant position for families and health care systems, as evidenced by the artificial split between physical and mental health care. In a mission to overcome this gap, this article will conclude by providing tools on how the highlighted evidence can help to close this gap between mind and body. View Full-Text
Keywords: pain; distress; mind-body split pain; distress; mind-body split

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Caes, L.; Orchard, A.; Christie, D. Connecting the Mind–Body Split: Understanding the Relationship between Symptoms and Emotional Well-Being in Chronic Pain and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Healthcare 2017, 5, 93.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Healthcare EISSN 2227-9032 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top