A Taxonomy for Augmented and Mixed Reality Applications to Support Physical Exercises in Medical Rehabilitation—A Literature Review
- Identifies different forms of Visual Guidance aimed to help patients in their rehabilitation, for example, by allowing them to perform exercises autonomously at home without any supervision by a therapist;
- Provides an overview of the current use of the variety of AR/MR Technologies used for visual output in the field of physical rehabilitation;
- Derives insights regarding the relations between Patient Types, Medical Purposes, Technologies, and specific Visual Guidance approaches used to support the patient in their rehabilitation process.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Eligibility Criteria
- The performance of physical exercises in medical rehabilitation. As mentioned above in the introduction, medical rehabilitation consists of a variety of treatment methods, including the fields of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy . As these types of therapy are interrelated to each other, we will refer to all kinds of physical exercises performed by patients within these fields by the term physical rehabilitation.
- The output technologies Augmented and Mixed Reality (AR/MR) as means to support the different types of physical exercises. The available vast amount of research in combination with the potential that future developments of the technology offer, we think, merits such a rather strict technological focus of this literature review. As has been the approach by other researchers (e.g., ), we will not distinguish between AR and MR but use the terms interchangeably or refer to them as AR/MR. As a foundation, we mostly follow the definition of Azuma, who summarized in his early survey of 1997 that AR (a) combines the real and virtual, (b) is interactive in real-time, and (c) is registered in 3D . In particular, the last requirement is not always met with all types of output technology. For example, smart glasses often superimpose a digital layer without registering this in 3D. For the matter of thoroughness and because the practical definitions of AR and MR are also evolving , we still included such approaches in our review. It is noteworthy to mention that we did not actively exclude applications employing Virtual Reality (VR) as long as our eligibility criteria were met. However, the number of VR applications found may not be representative, since we did not explicitly search for the term Virtual Reality during our paper selection process.
- The actual use of visual stimuli or visual guidance to support patients during the rehabilitation task. Here, we did not limit our review to graphical stimuli but included representations with text as well.
2.2. Literature Sources and Search Strategies
- The research must take place in the context of physical rehabilitation, i.e., physical exercises in medical rehabilitation. Therefore, at least one of the following search terms had to be included in the title, keywords, or abstract: “Physical Therapy”, “Physiotherapy”, “Physical exercise”, “Physical rehabilitation”, “Occupational Therapy”, “Stroke rehabilitation”.
- Furthermore, the research must use some kind of AR-/MR-based visual guidance or stimuli to support the patient in their rehabilitation. Consequently, one of these search terms must be found in the title, keywords, or abstract in addition to the first requirement: “Mixed Reality”, “Extended Reality”, “Augmented Reality”, “Visual Cues”, “Visualization”, “Visualisation”, “Video-based”.
2.3. Study Selection
- The reference addresses physical exercises in medical rehabilitation, but without the use of AR/MR-based or comparable visual guidance or support for the patient (104).
- The reference addresses medical rehabilitation but not physical exercise (38).
- The reference addresses the use of visual support in medical education or training, aimed at the medical professional (29).
- The reference uses no distinct visualization, but instead either considers the feasibility of conventional rehabilitation delivered via video calls or the effect of commercially available mobile games on general activity (17).
- The reference explicitly considers psychotherapy or psychiatry without physical exercise (15).
- The reference addresses other medical fields, such as medical imaging or surgery (125).
- The reference is off-topic in other ways, for example, including other data visualization in Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Veterinary Sciences, applications not employing AR/MR or VR, and game reviews (67).
- The references utilize no or an insufficient level of visualization (14).
- The references mention a system using visualization but do not explain it in enough detail, which would help other researchers and practitioners to build upon their results (13).
- The references utilize a system or application which was already (and better) explained in another paper included in the data-set. This took place many times as research groups would commonly deploy a single application for a number of distinct papers, such as a preliminary report, a feasibility study, a paper explaining the technical development, and a clinical long-term study (33).
- The references are literature reviews showing no distinct visualization, but refer to other potentially interesting papers (9).
- The references are off-topic in other ways (5).
- In addition, one single reference could not be procured (1).
3.1. Taxonomy Construction
- Target: A total of 64 (56%) of the applications use some form of Target, which we define as a spatial destination to be reached by the patient. For example, in Garcia and Navarro , the user controls a ball to hit bricks that act as a target with a paddle controlled by the foot movement (see Figure 3a). Similarly, another game in Bouteraa et al.  shows randomly appearing targets that patients need to grasp with their hand and the help of an exoskeleton.
- Path: Related to targets are Paths, which not only show the destination but also a trajectory to be followed. Compared to targets, paths provide information during the entire execution of the exercise. In total, 21 (18%) of the applications use this type of visualization. In SleeveAR , a path is shown to direct the arm movement in order to execute the exercise (see Figure 3b). [email protected]  visualizes a wedge that includes a movement arc for proper arm guidance (see Figure 3f).
- Direction: Overall, 15 (13%) applications do not show an entire path but indicate a Direction to be followed instead, usually visualized by an arrow. In the ARDance game , the user has to move the AR marker towards the left or right diagonal directions to complete dance moves. LightGuide  uses a simple 3D arrow projected onto the user’s hand to visualize the direction of movement. It also uses the Hue cue, a visual hint that uses spatial coloring to indicate direction (see Figure 3d). Tang et al.  also visualize such an arrow in addition to their path (see Figure 3f).
- Object: The most common element is Objects, found in 69 (61%) of the analyzed applications. Objects, unlike targets, can be interacted with in some way. For example, in the Ocean Catch Game by Park et al. , the user trains grasping movements by catching virtual fish. Similarly, Alamri et al. created a Shelf Exercise , which reenacts the motion of placement by showing a virtual cup that can be placed on different spots in a shelf by the user.
- Racket/Cursor: A Racket or Cursor is an object directly controlled by the patient which allows them to manipulate other objects; 21 (18%) of the analyzed solutions utilize such a racket. For example, with the help of a marker, the bar is used to hit the ball in a game of Pong as shown by Dinevan et al. . FruitNinja as applied by Seyedebrahimi et al.  shows a circle to depict the current position of the hand to control fruit targets appearing on the screen.
- Obstacle:Obstacles describes hindrances to be avoided or bypassed. They are employed in 11 (10%) of the applications. To facilitate practicing gait and balance exercises, the obstacles can be projected directly onto the treadmill  (see Figure 3c) or shown in the form of virtual objects such as blocks or tree trunks  to perform certain leg movements.
- Recording: The demonstration may be delivered by a prerecorded Video, Animation, or Picture, as it was the case in 23 (20%) of the analyzed applications. For instance, UNICARE Home+ by Yeo et al.  shows a guide video on the side of the screen to depict exercise movement. Another example from Khan et al.  uses the “follow the leader” approach by showing an animated virtual avatar to be followed by the user.
- Virtual Coach: Unlike with an unchanging recording, a Virtual Coach provides interaction with the user. Such a coach was used in seven (6%) of the analyzed solutions. The holographic representation of a virtual coach as depicted in Mostajeran et al.  allows users to look at the coach from different angles, see instructions from the same perspective and fosters interaction (see Figure 3e).
- Overlay: An Overlay displays a visual instruction directly perceived on the user’s body. In total, 15 (13%) applications employed such an Overlay. In a Kinect-based system as shown by Pachoulakis et al. , the user’s body is overlaid with skeleton joints displaying the trainer’s movement, allowing him to follow the exercise.
- Text: In total, 23 (20%) applications deliver Text-Based Instructions or Feedback. ARKanoidAR  uses text-based instructions to guide the user in performing the exercise correctly (see Figure 3g). Additionally, a virtual piano game  motivates patients by showing text-based feedback such as “Well Done” based on the performance of the user.
- Score/Graph: A total of 60 (53%) of the analyzed solutions provide the patients with some kind of informative Graph, Score or Progress Bar related to their performance. When the task is performed correctly, the score is increased, as depicted in FruitNinja  or ARKanoidAR  games. Such game elements increase the user’s motivation to keep performing the exercise.
- Color-code: Information can also be transported using a Color-Code which is used by 23 (20%) applications. To illustrate if the user has reached the target appropriately, interACTION  uses a color-coded mechanism to inform the patient. The Target is originally displayed in red. Once the user approaches the target, it changes its color to yellow and once the target is reached, it turns green. Another approach used by  is to compare the user’s pose and the desired pose with a color code. Once the user’s pose matches the desired pose, the circular glyphs are highlighted in green.
- Self-Evaluation: Altogether, 26 (23%) applications grant the patient some kind of improved Self-Evaluation delivered by either another camera angle or mirror to visualize the real affected body part better as shown in [email protected]  (see Figure 3f), or by displaying an avatar or skeleton based on motion tracking data to grant information on the patient’s own movement. One such example is depicted in  for gait symmetry, where the user’s whole body movement is shown via an avatar with different views for a better understanding of gait deviations.
3.2. Time-Based Analysis
3.3. Patient Type and Bodily Functions
- First, studies aimed at Upper Limb are predominately focusing on individual parts of the limb, sometimes multiple, as seen in Figure 6. Among the 81 references covering Upper Limb, 51 (63%) target either the Hand, Fingers or Wrist, 21 (26%) the Elbow and 20 (25%) the Shoulder, leaving only 19 (23%) references without a specific focus. In contrast, the 33 references regarding Lower Limb are overwhelmingly nonspecific (79%) with only 7 applications (21%) focusing on either the Knee, Ankle or both.
- Further, there is a difference in the targeted Bodily Functions depending on the considered Body Part. 79 (98%) out of the 81 Upper Body applications target the restoration or improvement of specific Motor Functions, while 19 (23%) aim to increase the patient’s muscle Strength. In comparison, with 24 (73%) the largest fraction of the 33 Lower Limb research addresses the patient’s Gait or Balance, especially in order to prevent future falls. Improvement of Specific Motor Function, however, is only targeted in 19 (58%) references here. Muscle Strength is also considered less often, finding explicit mentioning in five (15%) of the references.
- Lastly, the research focused on both Lower Limb and Gait has increased immensely in recent years, as illustrated in Figure 7. Prior to 2019, we identified a total of 13 references targeting Lower Limb, representing only 18% of the research papers published in this time frame. Further, only eight of these (62%) aim at Gait or Balance. Compared to that, 20 out of 43 applications published since 2019 target Lower Limb (47%). Additionally, the share of Lower Limb research focusing Gait or Balance rose to 80%.
3.4. Medical Purpose and Application Types
- Regarding the Bodily Functions, 11 out of the 13 (85%) applications aiming to provide Cognitive training do so by employing Game elements.
- The 55 Game-based applications are especially often used to increase the patients’ motivation, with 51 (93%) of them targeting increased Adherence. For the 53 Task-based applications, Adherence is a much less prominent goal, which is only addressed by 31 (58%) applications. In total, 30 (55%) of the Game-based applications further aim to increase the patients’ Effort during the session, compared to only 16 (30%) within the set of Task-based approaches.
- Instead, 28 (53%) Task-based applications focus on increased Accuracy, compared to only 11 (20%) within the set of Game-based applications.
- In general, Task-based applications are more balanced in their use of visual elements, while Game-based are more focused on certain elements, namely Objects (91%), Scores or Graphs (80%), and Targets (65%).
- The most common visual elements implemented in Game-based applications are from the Guided Interaction group. Elements from this group are used in 53 Game-based applications (96%) and make up 59% of all elements used here. In comparison, they are used in 38 Task-based applications (72%) and account for 46% of elements used.
- In contrast, only nine Game-based applications (16%) utilize one form of Demonstrated Interaction each, accounting for 4% of elements. Within Task-based applications, 24 (47%) employ at least one Demonstrated Interaction element, accounting for 19% of all elements.
4.1. Implications for Visual Guidance
- Even for non-game-like applications, the use of AR/MR still provides a certain fascination and helps to keep users engaged. Still, if this is just a rather short-dated novelty effect or can be something that is sustained over time, remains to be seen.
- There is some evidence that there is a closer relation between specific types of Visual Guidance elements and certain Medical Purposes, such as Gait & Balance being addressed through Obstacle elements. However, again, the current body of work does not provide systematic studies of such aspects but base this conclusion on the overall evaluation of an application.
- There is growing evidence that simple video-based tele-rehabilitation approaches can not compete with AR/MR approaches, which should provide an interesting opportunity for future business models, as currently tele-rehabilitation and tele-fitness courses dominate the home market.
4.2. Implications for Output Technology
4.3. Research Opportunities
- The analyzed literature reveals a strong focus on rehabilitation following Neurological conditions, especially Stroke. This may be due to research grants rather being provided to researchers who try to tackle such universal problems. Still, it would help if more research would then try to generalize the findings to other Medical Conditions. In particular, research dealing with AR/MR-based interventions following Injury or physical Disabilities is severely lacking.
- Research on Upper Limb is both more prevalent in general and more diverse, routinely focusing on individual joints and muscles, which at least can be partly explained through the importance of the Hands (and related body parts) for everyday activities and independence. Contrary, a majority of Lower Limb research targets Gait or Balance. The research focused on the use of AR/MR technology in rehabilitation and exercises of individual joints and muscles of the Lower Limb remains scarce. Additionally, research aimed at muscle Strength is severely underrepresented as well, in particular for Lower Limb.
- Regarding the utilized Output Technology, Screens still account for almost half of all display types used, even in most recent years. In contrast, there is ample research opportunity for more advanced AR/MR technologies such as HMDs and Spatial-AR through projection. HMDs might have an advantage for home-based exercise, but Spatial-AR could be installed in facilities and provide much of the same experience without the drawbacks of a (currently) heavy-weight head-worn device.
- The Visual Guidance elements Virtual Coach and on-body Overlays are relatively seldom types of demonstration, although the existing research shows promising results (e.g., [48,49]). While both Virtual Coaches and on-body Overlays are quite complex to realize and require a tracking of the environment or body, we think there is an opportunity here, in particular in combination with modern AR/MR-HMDs and their integrated inside-out tracking functionality.
- Furthermore, there is a lack of research explicitly comparing the effectiveness and advantages of selected Visual Guidance elements. While a few references did compare elements [14,28,30], they only do so aimed at very specific use cases. Therefore, this literature review cannot provide more guidance towards the usefulness and appropriateness of certain elements. Still, our review can serve as an inspirational starting point for practitioners and other researchers alike.
4.4. Limitations and Weaknesses
- Firstly, in this scoping literature review, information was gathered from different studies and sources without assessing or weighing the quality, accuracy, and validity of the papers. Instead, the focus was on collecting evidence to provide an overview of the research topic and assist researchers. Therefore, no assertions or suggestions can be made about the feasibility of the employed visualisations, nor is possible to derive a fair general comparison between them.
- Furthermore, the review was exploratory, employing an open-coding process. Therefore, the chosen categories, codes, and assignments could be considered arbitrary. In order to mitigate this factor, all steps leading to and including the final coding process were performed by at least two independent researchers and discussed with a third reviewer before a final call was made.
- The selection of search keywords is, as with every literature review, a topic for debate. We deliberately did not impose a predefined set of keywords on the search process, but rather applied an iterative process, adding relevant keywords along the way.
- Lastly, within this review, we identified distinct applications. Occasionally, this led to an inclusion of several such applications presented within a single reference or by the same research group. Although distinct, these routinely share many similarities, such as using the same technology, thereby distorting results. Therefore, the results do not accurately describe the amount and quality of research in each category. In order to limit this bias, we did not include papers describing an identical system, but only the one best representing it.
- The review address the broad topic of the use of Augmented and Mixed Reality applications in several areas of medical rehabilitation and for multiple conditions and affected body parts. Further, it takes into consideration a broad spectrum of sources, employing different methods and study designs. It is therefore able to provide an overview of the extent, range and nature of currently evolving areas of research as well as summarize research findings.
- By doing this, it also aids to identify trends, needs and research gaps to aid in future research.
- The review further provides a first taxonomy to classify the research area. The advantage of the exploratory approach employing an open-coding method lies in its bottom-up construction of categories and items based on actual research and relevant items within the sources.
- Additionally, several in-depth qualitative comparisons of selected recent studies were conducted, to provide a better understanding of the reasoning behind technology choices for Output Technology, this paper aims to further guide future research and experiment set-ups.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|ACM||Association for Computing Machinery|
|HCI||Human Computer Interaction|
|IEEE||Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers|
|WHO||World Health Organization|
|1st Author||Ref.||Med. Condition||Aff. Body Part||Bodily Function||Added Value|
|Achanccaray||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AC, AH, EF|
|Agopyan||||NE, NS||LL, KN||MF, GB||AC, EF|
|Alamri|| a||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, PA|
|Alamri|| b||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Alexandre||||NE, NS, CO||UL, FH||MF, ST||AC, AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Aung|| a||NE, NS||UL||MF, ST||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Aung|| b||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF, ST||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Aung||||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF||AU, EF|
|Bakker||||NE, NS||BO||CG||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Baran||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Bell||||IS||LL, KN||MF||AC, AH, AU, PF|
|Bouteraa||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, PA, PF|
|Broeren||||NE, NS||UL||MF||AH, AU, PF|
|Broeren||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF, CG||AH, AU, EF|
|Burke|| a||NE, NS||UL||MF, ST||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Burke|| b||NE, NS||UL||MF, ST, CG||AH, AU, PF|
|Camporesi||||CO||UL||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Cavalcanti||||NE||UL, SH, EL||MF||AC, AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Chang||||NE, NS||LL, KN||MF, GB||AH, EF, PA, PF|
|Colomer|| a||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Colomer|| b||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Corrêa||||CO||UL, FH, EL||MF||AH, EF|
|Da Gama||||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF||AC, AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Dancu||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AC, AU, PF|
|David||||NE, NS||UL, SH, EL||MF||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Desai|| a||NE, NS||LL||GB||AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Desai|| b||NE, NS||UL, EL||MF||AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Desai|| c||NE, NS||UL, EL||MF, CG||AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Dinevan|| a||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, PF|
|Dinevan|| b||NE, NS||UL, SH||MF, ST||AH, AU, PF|
|Enam||||NE, NS||LL, AN||GB||AH, EF|
|Fonteyn||||NE||LL||MF, GB||AU, PA, PF|
|Garcia||||IS||LL, AN||MF||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Gauthier||||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF, ST, CG||AH, AU, EF|
|Grimm||||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF||AC, AH, PA|
|Guo||||NE, NS||UL, LL||MF||AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Halic||||CO||UL, FH||MF, ST||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Han||||CO||UL||MF||AC, AU, PF|
|Mohd Hashim||||NE, NS||LL||MF, CG||AH, AU|
|Held||||NE, NS||LL||MF, GB, CG||AU, PF|
|Hoermann||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF, CG||AH, AU, EF|
|Hoermann||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, EF|
|1st Author||Ref.||Output Tech.||Application Type||Visual Guidance||Input Tech.|
|Achanccaray||||HVR||TB, MI||OB, RE||AD|
|Alamri|| a||HVR||TB||TA, OB||MBT|
|Alamri|| b||HVR||TB||OB, PT||MBT|
|Alexandre||||SC||GA||TA, OB, RC, GS||SBT, HD|
|Aung|| a||SC||GA||OB, RC, SE, GS||MBT, AD|
|Aung|| b||SC||GA||TA, OB, DI, SE, GS||MBT, AD|
|Aung||||SC||TB, MI||TA, PT, OV||MBT, AD|
|Baker||||HAR||GA||TA, OB, RC, RE, GS||SBT|
|Baran||||SC||TB||OB, PT||MBT, AD|
|Bell||||SC||TB||RE, GS, CC||MBT, SBT|
|Bouteraa||||SC||GA||TA, OB, SE, GS||OT, AD|
|Broeren||||SC||GA||TA, OB, GS||HD|
|Broeren||||SC||GA||TA, OB, RC, OS, GS||HD|
|Burke|| a||SC||GA||TA, OB, RC, GS||MBT|
|Burke|| b||SC||TB||TA, OB, GS, CC||MBT|
|Camporesi||||SC||TB||VT, RE, SE, GS||OT, MBT|
|Cavalcanti||||SC||GA||TA, OB, RC, RE, GS, TE||OT|
|Chang||||HAR||GA||TA, OB, PT, GS, TE||SBT, AD|
|Chen||||SC||GA||OB, DI, OV, SE, GS, TE||OT|
|Colomer|| a||SAR||GA||TA, OB, GS, TE||OT|
|Colomer|| b||SAR||GA||OB, RC, GS||OT|
|Da Gama||||SC||GA||TA, OB, RE, GS, TE||OT|
|Dancu||||SC||TB||TA, VT, RE, SE, GS||OT|
|Desai|| a||SC||GA||OB, SE, GS||OT|
|Desai|| b||SC||GA||OB, SE, GS||OT|
|Desai|| c||SC||GA||TA, OB, SE, GS, TE||OT|
|Dinevan|| a||SC||GA||OB, RC, GS||MBT|
|Dinevan|| b||SC||GA||OB, RC, GS, TE||MBT, AD|
|Fonteyn||||SAR||TB||TA, OS||MBT, AD|
|Garcia||||MAR||GA||TA, OB, RC, PT||MBT|
|Gauthier||||SC||GA||TA, OB, OS, SE, GS||OT|
|Grimm||||SC||TB||TA, OB||SBT, HD|
|Guo||||MAR||GA||TA, OB, PT, GS, TE||OT|
|Halic||||SC||GA||OB, OS, GS||SBT|
|Han||||HAR||TB||RE, OV||OT, SBT, AD|
|Mohd Hashim||||HVR||GA||OB, GS, TE||OT|
|Held||||HAR||GA||TA, OB, PT, OS, DI, TE, CC||SBT|
|Hoermann||||SC||GA, MI||OB, GS, CC||OT, AD|
|1st Author||Ref.||Med. Condition||Aff. Body Part||Bodily Function||Added Value|
|Ines||||NE, NS||UL, FH, EL||MF||AH, AU, EF, PA|
|Jin||||NE, NS||LL||GB, ST||AC, AH, AU, PA|
|Jung||||NE, NS||LL, AN||MF, GB, ST|
|Keskin|| a||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, EF, PA|
|Keskin|| b||NE, NS||UL, FH, EL||MF||AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Khan||||CO||UL, LL||GB||AC, AU|
|King||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, EF|
|Klein||||NE, NS||UL, SH||MF||EF|
|Kloster||||IS||BO||AH, AU, PF|
|Koroleva|| a||NE, NS||LL||MF, GB||AC, PA, PF|
|Koroleva|| b||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF, ST||AC, PA, PF|
|Kowatsch||||CO||UL, LL, BO||ST||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|LaPiana||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF, ST||AH, AU, EF|
|Lee||||NE, NP||LL||GB||AH, AU, EF|
|Liu|| a||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF, ST||AH, AU, PF|
|Liu|| b||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF, ST||AH, AU, PF|
|Liu|| c||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF, ST||AC, AH, AU, PF|
|Liu|| a||NE, NS||LL||GB||AU, PF|
|Liu|| b||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU|
|Lledó||||NE, NS||UL||MF||AC, AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Loureiro||||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF||AC, AH|
|Luo||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH|
|Manuli||||NE, NS||LL||MF, GB, ST, CG||AH, EF, PF|
|Monge||||NE, NS, IS, CO||LL||MF||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Mostajeran||||CO||GB||AU, PA, PF|
|Mostajeran||||CO||MF, GB, CG||AC, AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Mouraux||||NE, IS||UL||MF||AH, AU|
|Muñoz||||NE, IS||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF||AC, AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Pachoulakis||||NE, NP||UL, FH, SH, EL, LL||MF||AC, AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Paredes||||CO||LL||GB, CG||AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Park||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU|
|Phongamwong||||NE, NS||LL||MF, GB||AC, PA, PF|
|Ramirez||||NE, NS||LL||ST||AH, AU, EF|
|Regenbrecht||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH|
|Saraee||||NE, NS, IS, CO||UL||MF, ST||AH, EF, PA|
|Seyedebrahimi||||NE, NS, NP||UL, FH||MF, CG||EF|
|Shen||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AC, AH, AU, PF|
|Sodhi|| a||CO||UL, FH||MF||AC, AU|
|Sodhi|| b||CO||UL, FH||MF||AC, AU|
|Sodhi|| c||CO||UL, FH||MF||AC, AU|
|Sodhi|| d||CO||UL, FH||MF||AC, AU, PF|
|Song|| a||NE, NS||UL||MF||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Song|| b||NE, NS||UL||MF, CG||AH, AU, PF|
|Sousa||||IS||UL, SH, EL||MF||AC, AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Sror||||NE, NS||UL, EL||MF||AC, EF, PF|
|1st Author||Ref.||Output Tech.||Application Type||Visual Guidance||Input Tech.|
|Jin||||HAR||GA||TA, OB, PT, OS, DI, GS||OT, AD|
|Keskin|| a||SC||TB||TA, OB||OT|
|Keskin|| b||SC||GA||OB, RC, GS||OT|
|King||||SC||GA||TA, OB, RC, GS||MBT|
|Klein||||SC||TB, MI||OV||MBT, AD|
|Kloster||||HVR||GA||TA, TE, CC||SBT|
|Koroleva|| a||SC||TB||PT, OS, GS||OT|
|Koroleva|| b||SC||GA||OB, PT, GS, CC||OT|
|Kotwasch||||HAR, SC||TB||VT, TE||SBT|
|LaPiana||||HVR||GA||TA, OB, GS||MBT|
|Liu|| a||SC||TB||TA, OB, RC, GS, CC||MBT|
|Liu|| b||SC||GA||OB, RC, GS||MBT|
|Liu|| c||SC||TB||TA, OB, RC, PT, GS, CC||MBT|
|Liu|| a||SC||TB||SE||MBT, AD|
|Liu|| b||SC||MI||RE, OV||MBT, AD|
|Lledó||||SC||TB||TA, OB, GS, CC||HD|
|Loureiro||||SC||TB||TA, OB, PT||HD|
|Monge||||MAR||GA||VT, GS||SBT, AD|
|Mostajeran||||HAR||GA||TA, OB, PT, VT||OT, AD|
|Mouraux||||SC||GA, MI||TA, OB, SE, CC||OT|
|Muñoz||||SC||GA||OB, DI, RE, SE, GS||OT|
|Nanapragasam||||SC||TA, SE||MBT, AD|
|Pachoulakis||||SC||TB||PT, DI, RE, OV, GS, TE||OT|
|Paredes||||HAR||GA||TA, OB, OS, GS, TE||OT, SBT, AD|
|Park||||HVR||GA||TA, OB, GS||OT|
|Phongamwong||||SC||TB||SE, GS||MBT, AD|
|Ramirez||||MAR||GA||TA, OB, GS, TE||SBT|
|Saraee||||SC||TB||TA, OB, RC, PT||HD|
|Seyedebrahimi||||SAR, SC||GA||TA, RC, GS||MBT|
|Shen||||HAR||GA||TA, OB, DI, OV, GS, TE, CC||MBT, SBT|
|Sodhi|| a||SAR||TB||DI, OV||OT|
|Sodhi|| b||SAR||TB||DI, OV||OT|
|Sodhi|| c||SAR||TB||TA, PT, OV, CC||OT|
|Sodhi|| d||SAR||TB||DI, OV, CC||OT|
|Song|| a||MAR||GA||TA, OB, RC, GS||OT|
|Song|| b||MAR||GA||TA, OB, GS, TE||OT|
|Sousa||||SAR||TB||TA, RC, PT, OV, GS, CC||MBT|
|Sror||||SC||TB||TA, TE||OT, HD|
|1st Author||Ref.||Med. Condition||Aff. Body Part||Bodily Function||Added Value|
|Syed Ali Fathima||||CO||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Tang||||IS||UL, SH||MF, ST||AC, AU, PF|
|Theunissen|| a||NE, NS||LL||MF, GB||AC, AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Theunissen|| b||NE, NS||LL||MF, GB||AC, AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Theunissen|| c||NE, NS||LL||MF, GB||AC, AH, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Thikey||||NE, NS||LL, AN, KN||MF, GB||AC, AH, PA, PF|
|Timmermans|| a||NE, NS||LL||GB||AH, AU, PF|
|Timmermans|| b||NE, NS||LL||GB||AH, AU, PF|
|Timmermans|| c||NE, NS||LL||GB||AH, AU, PF|
|Toh||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, EF, PF|
|Trojan|| a||NE, NS, CO||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Trojan|| b||NE, NS, CO||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Trojan|| c||NE, NS, CO||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Trojan|| d||NE, NS, CO||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Velloso||||CO||ST||AC, AU, EF, PA, PF|
|Vidrios-Serrano||||NE, NS||UL||MF||AH, AU, PA|
|Voinea||||NE, NS||UL, FH||MF||AH, AU|
|Wei||||NE, NS||UL||MF||AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Xue||||NE, NS, IS, CO||UL, FH, SH, EL||MF, ST||AC, AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Yang||||CO||UL, LL||MF||AC, AU, PA, PF|
|Yeh||||NE, NS||UL, FH, SH||MF||AC, AH, AU, PA|
|Yeo||||CO||UL, SH||MF||AC, AH, AU, PA, PF|
|Yu|| a||CO||UL||MF, ST||AC, AU, PF|
|Yu|| b||CO||UL||MF, ST||AC, AU, PF|
|1st Author||Ref.||Output Tech.||Application Type||Visual Guidance||Input Tech.|
|Syed Ali Fathima||||SC||GA||TA, OB, GS||OT|
|Tang||||SC||TB||TA, PT, DI, OV, SE, GS, TE, CC||MBT|
|Theunissen|| a||SC||GA||GS||MBT, SBT, AD|
|Theunissen|| b||MAR||GA||TA, OB, GS||SBT|
|Thikey||||SC||TB||TA, SE, GS, CC||MBT|
|Toh||||SC||GA||TA, OB, RC, OS, DI, GS, TE||MBT|
|Trojan|| a||HAR||MI||TA, RE, CC||OT|
|Trojan|| b||HAR||MI||TA, RE||OT|
|Trojan|| c||HAR||GA, MI||TA, OB, RE||OT|
|Trojan|| d||HAR||MI||OB, RE||OT|
|Velloso||||SC||TB||DI, RE, OV, SE, GS, TE, CC||OT, SBT|
|Vidrios-Serrano||||HAR||TB||TA, OB, RC, CC||MBT, HD|
|Voinea||||HVR||TB, MI||VT, RE, SE|
|Wei||||SC||TB||SE, GS, CC||AD|
|Yang||||HVR||TB||TA, OB, OV, SE||SBT|
|Yeo||||SC||TB||TA, DI, RE, SE, GS, TE||OT|
|Yu|| a||HVR||TB||TA, OB, PT, DI, RE, SE, CC||OT|
|Yu|| b||HVR||TB||PT, SE, CC||OT, MBT|
|Medical Condition||NE = Neurological||NS = Stroke||NP = Parkinson|
|IS = Injury/Surgery||CO = Other Condition|
|Affected Body part||UL = Upper Limb||FH = Hand/Fingers/Wrists||SH = Shoulder|
|EL = Elbow||LL = Lower Limb||AN = Ankle|
|KN = Knee||BO = Other|
|Bodily Function||MF = Motor function||GB = Gait/Balance||ST = Strength|
|CG = Cognitive function|
|Added Value||AH = Adherence||PA = Post-session Analysis||AC = Accuracy|
|AU = Autonomy||PF = Performance Feedback||EF = Effort|
|Output Technology||HVR = VR HMD||HAR = AR/MR HMD||SAR = Spatial AR/MR|
|MAR = Mobile AR/MR||SC = Other Screen-based|
|Application Type||GA = Game-based||TB = Task-based||MI = Mirror Therapy|
|Visual Guidance||TA = Target||OB = Object||RC = Racket/Cursor|
|PT = Path||OS = Obstacle||DI = Direction|
|VT = Virtual Coach||RE = Recording||OV = Overlay|
|SE = Self-Evaluation||GS = Score/Graph||TE = Text|
|CC = Color-code|
|Input Technology||OT = Optical Tracking||MBT = Marker-based Tracking||AD = Additional Device|
|HD = Haptic Device||SBT = Sensor-based Tracking|
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Butz, B.; Jussen, A.; Rafi, A.; Lux, G.; Gerken, J. A Taxonomy for Augmented and Mixed Reality Applications to Support Physical Exercises in Medical Rehabilitation—A Literature Review. Healthcare 2022, 10, 646. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040646
Butz B, Jussen A, Rafi A, Lux G, Gerken J. A Taxonomy for Augmented and Mixed Reality Applications to Support Physical Exercises in Medical Rehabilitation—A Literature Review. Healthcare. 2022; 10(4):646. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040646Chicago/Turabian Style
Butz, Benjamin, Alexander Jussen, Asma Rafi, Gregor Lux, and Jens Gerken. 2022. "A Taxonomy for Augmented and Mixed Reality Applications to Support Physical Exercises in Medical Rehabilitation—A Literature Review" Healthcare 10, no. 4: 646. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040646