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Comment published on 5 May 2022, see Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 846.
Review

Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Motor Impairment in Stroke: A Narrative Review on the Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Economic Statistics of Stroke and State of the Art Therapies

1
School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 45200, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences, Health & Rehabilitation Research Institute, AUT University, Auckland 0627, New Zealand
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School of Physics, Engineering and Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
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School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, UK
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Center of Chiropractic Research, New Zealand College of Chiropractic, Auckland 1060, New Zealand
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Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Department of Health Science & Technology, Aalborg University, 9000 Alborg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Carmelo Adsuar Sala
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020190
Received: 8 December 2021 / Revised: 5 January 2022 / Accepted: 13 January 2022 / Published: 19 January 2022
Stroke has been one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and is still a social health issue. Keeping in view the importance of physical rehabilitation of stroke patients, an analytical review has been compiled in which different therapies have been reviewed for their effectiveness, such as functional electric stimulation (FES), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) including transcranial direct current stimulation (t-DCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (t-MS), invasive epidural cortical stimulation, virtual reality (VR) rehabilitation, task-oriented therapy, robot-assisted training, tele rehabilitation, and cerebral plasticity for the rehabilitation of upper extremity motor impairment. New therapeutic rehabilitation techniques are also being investigated, such as VR. This literature review mainly focuses on the randomized controlled studies, reviews, and statistical meta-analyses associated with motor rehabilitation after stroke. Moreover, with the increasing prevalence rate and the adverse socio-economic consequences of stroke, a statistical analysis covering its economic factors such as treatment, medication and post-stroke care services, and risk factors (modifiable and non-modifiable) have also been discussed. This review suggests that if the prevalence rate of the disease remains persistent, a considerable increase in the stroke population is expected by 2025, causing a substantial economic burden on society, as the survival rate of stroke is high compared to other diseases. Compared to all the other therapies, VR has now emerged as the modern approach towards rehabilitation motor activity of impaired limbs. A range of randomized controlled studies and experimental trials were reviewed to analyse the effectiveness of VR as a rehabilitative treatment with considerable satisfactory results. However, more clinical controlled trials are required to establish a strong evidence base for VR to be widely accepted as a preferred rehabilitation therapy for stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; rehabilitation; tele rehabilitation; electric stimulation; virtual reality (VR); epidural; NIBS; risk factors; modifiable; non-modifiable stroke; rehabilitation; tele rehabilitation; electric stimulation; virtual reality (VR); epidural; NIBS; risk factors; modifiable; non-modifiable
MDPI and ACS Style

Anwer, S.; Waris, A.; Gilani, S.O.; Iqbal, J.; Shaikh, N.; Pujari, A.N.; Niazi, I.K. Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Motor Impairment in Stroke: A Narrative Review on the Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Economic Statistics of Stroke and State of the Art Therapies. Healthcare 2022, 10, 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020190

AMA Style

Anwer S, Waris A, Gilani SO, Iqbal J, Shaikh N, Pujari AN, Niazi IK. Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Motor Impairment in Stroke: A Narrative Review on the Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Economic Statistics of Stroke and State of the Art Therapies. Healthcare. 2022; 10(2):190. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020190

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anwer, Saba, Asim Waris, Syed O. Gilani, Javaid Iqbal, Nusratnaaz Shaikh, Amit N. Pujari, and Imran K. Niazi. 2022. "Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Motor Impairment in Stroke: A Narrative Review on the Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Economic Statistics of Stroke and State of the Art Therapies" Healthcare 10, no. 2: 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020190

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