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Healthcare, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 231 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Older patients admitted to hospitals for acute medical care are particularly vulnerable to hospital re-presentation. Unplanned hospital re-presentations could be considered as an outcome of ineffective discharge planning, which is a process of developing an individually tailored plan to facilitate the return of individuals to their residences from hospitals. Several models of discharge planning exist; however, there is no consensus on which model is the best. Even when a recognised model of care is identified as suitable for a healthcare facility, translating such a model into practice can be difficult. This ethnographic study aimed to observe discharge planning processes of older patients at two hospitals in the same health service district, compare these processes to evidence-based recommendations, and compare the processes between the sites. View this paper
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Article
Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss May Increase the Risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020408 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is thought to be a vascular disease. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is an also common ophthalmic vascular disease. Thus, we investigated the potential relationship between these using a retrospective nationwide cohort dataset. We compared 49,584 subjects in the [...] Read more.
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is thought to be a vascular disease. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is an also common ophthalmic vascular disease. Thus, we investigated the potential relationship between these using a retrospective nationwide cohort dataset. We compared 49,584 subjects in the SSNHL and the comparison (non-SSNHL) groups using patients randomly selected via propensity-score matching. We calculated the incidence, survival rate, and hazards ratio (HR) using log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. This study examined a total of 375,490.4 person-years in the SSNHL group and 373,698.2 person-years in the comparison group. We found that 673 patients in the SSNHL group (1.8 cases per 1000 person-years) and 592 in the comparison group (1.6 cases per 1000 person-years) developed RVO during the 8-year follow-up period. The adjusted HR of RVO was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.26). The adjusted HR of developing RVO in SSNHL was the greatest in elderly patients (adjusted HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01–1.46) and male patients (adjusted HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.03–1.34). Our findings suggest that clinicians should remain vigilant of the possibility of RVO development in SSNHL patients, specifically elderly male patients. Full article
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Article
Use of Physiotherapy Prior to Total Knee Arthroplasty—Results of the Prospective FInGK Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020407 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Background: Data regarding physiotherapy (PT) utilization prior to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are insufficient. Therefore, this study aims to examine which percentage of patients receive PT within 12 months prior to TKA and which factors are associated with its use. Methods: Consecutive patients [...] Read more.
Background: Data regarding physiotherapy (PT) utilization prior to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are insufficient. Therefore, this study aims to examine which percentage of patients receive PT within 12 months prior to TKA and which factors are associated with its use. Methods: Consecutive patients (≥18 years) undergoing primary or revision TKA in a German university hospital were recruited. A questionnaire including information on PT utilization, demography, and socioeconomics was collected one day prior to surgery and linked to medical hospital records. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine variables associated with the use of PT. Results: A total of 241 out of 283 (85%) patients participated (60% female; mean age: 68.4 years). Overall, 41% received PT at least once during 12 months prior to TKA, women more frequently than men (48% vs. 29%). Although high disease burden was associated with increased utilization, about one in two in this condition did not receive PT. Multivariable logistic regression showed that age 75+ years, low education level, and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were associated with decreased PT utilization. Conclusions: We found low use of recommended PT management in patients prior to TKA. This potential underuse was even higher in some vulnerable subgroups, indicating inequalities. Prescribers as well as patients should integrate PT more consistently into osteoarthritis management. Full article
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Article
Oral Hygiene Practices and Oral Health Knowledge among Students in Split, Croatia
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020406 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 399
Abstract
Background: Knowledge of oral health is a fundamental prerequisite for healthy behavior, allowing individuals to take measures to protect their overall health. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the knowledge of oral health as well as to assess the oral hygiene habits among [...] Read more.
Background: Knowledge of oral health is a fundamental prerequisite for healthy behavior, allowing individuals to take measures to protect their overall health. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the knowledge of oral health as well as to assess the oral hygiene habits among healthcare and non-healthcare students. Methods: The study was based on a questionnaire and was conducted among 1088 students. Most of the students, 67.6% were non-healthcare students. Data were processed by Mann–Whitney or Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The correct median score and interquartile range were 11 (9–13) for all surveyed students, 11 (9–12) for students in non-healthcare programs and 13 (11–14) for students in healthcare programs. Students did not significantly differ in the knowledge of oral health by gender (p = 0.082) but did differ by age, study program, and year of study (p ≤ 0.001). Students whose family members work in the field of dental medicine also showed better oral health knowledge (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The results showed good oral health knowledge among tested university students. However, it is important to emphasize that students who showed better knowledge more often used additional aids to maintain oral hygiene; therefore, the obtained data underline the importance of students’ further education in order to better understand and maintain oral health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic State-of-the-Art Dentistry and Oral Health)
Article
Measurements of Tear Evaporation Rate in Subjects with Refractive Errors Using a Portable Evaporimeter
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020405 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Dry eye symptoms are associated with refractive errors. We aimed to measure the tear evaporation rate (TER) in subjects with refractive errors (RE) using a portable evaporimeter. This nonrandomized, case–control, and observational study included 75 subjects, including 25 subjects aged 18–38 years (28.8 [...] Read more.
Dry eye symptoms are associated with refractive errors. We aimed to measure the tear evaporation rate (TER) in subjects with refractive errors (RE) using a portable evaporimeter. This nonrandomized, case–control, and observational study included 75 subjects, including 25 subjects aged 18–38 years (28.8 ± 6.8 years) with myopia (−0.75 to −3.75 D) and 25 subjects aged 18–39 years (27.7 ± 5.5 years) with hyperopia (+0.50 to +3.75 D). In addition, a control group of 25 subjects with emmetropic eyes aged 20–30 years (23.6 ± 2.6 years) was recruited. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) was completed, followed by the TER measurements using a portable evaporimeter. The OSDI score and TER measurements showed dry eye symptoms in 36% and 48% of myopic subjects, respectively. For hyperopic participants, dry eye was observed in 24% and 56% of the subjects based on the OSDI and TER scores, respectively. Significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test; p < 0.001) were found among the OSDI and TER scores recorded within the study (myopic and hyperopic subjects) and control groups. Significant strong positive correlations were detected between the OSDI and TER scores in both myopic (p = 0.004; r = 0.559) and hyperopic (p = 0.001; r = 0.619) subjects. The TER scores were significantly higher in subjects with RE (myopic and hyperopic) as compared with individuals with normal eyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies for Dry Eye Disease)
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Article
“Dietitians May Only Have One Chance”—The Realities of Treating Obesity in Private Practice in Australia
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020404 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Introduction: Overweight and obesity are the leading contributors to non-fatal burden of disease in Australia. Very low energy diets (VLEDs) comprising of meal replacement products (MRP) effectively induce substantial weight loss in people with obesity, yet they are rarely used as a first [...] Read more.
Introduction: Overweight and obesity are the leading contributors to non-fatal burden of disease in Australia. Very low energy diets (VLEDs) comprising of meal replacement products (MRP) effectively induce substantial weight loss in people with obesity, yet they are rarely used as a first line treatment. Dietitians in private practice are perfectly placed to administer treatments for obesity; however, little is known about the preferred interventions used or their attitudes to incorporating VLEDs and MRPs into their treatments for overweight and obesity. Methods: This study used descriptive qualitative methods to explore accredited practicing dietitians’ (APDs’) perspectives and practices regarding obesity and obesity interventions, including the use of VLEDs and MRPs. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 dietitians who had experience in private practice and in treating obesity. Transcribed interviews were analysed thematically using the technique of template analysis. Results: In the context within which dietitians’ practice was found to be a barrier to using evidence-based practice (EBP) for obesity treatment, four overarching themes were found. These were: (1) patient-centred care is the dietitians’ preferred intervention model; (2) VLEDs promote weight loss in specific situations; (3) systemic barriers constrain effective dietetic practice and equitable access to all, and (4) successful outcomes are predicated on working outside of systemic barriers. Conclusion: Dietitians in private practice are well placed and able to provide life-enhancing and evidence-based treatments for overweight and obesity and associated chronic disease in the community. However, systemic barriers need to be addressed to provide equitable access to effective care irrespective of socio-economic status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chronic Care)
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Article
COVID-19 Identification from Low-Quality Computed Tomography Using a Modified Enhanced Super-Resolution Generative Adversarial Network Plus and Siamese Capsule Network
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020403 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 498
Abstract
Computed Tomography has become a vital screening method for the detection of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). With the high mortality rate and overload for domain experts, radiologists, and clinicians, there is a need for the application of a computerized diagnostic technique. To this effect, [...] Read more.
Computed Tomography has become a vital screening method for the detection of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). With the high mortality rate and overload for domain experts, radiologists, and clinicians, there is a need for the application of a computerized diagnostic technique. To this effect, we have taken into consideration improving the performance of COVID-19 identification by tackling the issue of low quality and resolution of computed tomography images by introducing our method. We have reported about a technique named the modified enhanced super resolution generative adversarial network for a better high resolution of computed tomography images. Furthermore, in contrast to the fashion of increasing network depth and complexity to beef up imaging performance, we incorporated a Siamese capsule network that extracts distinct features for COVID-19 identification.The qualitative and quantitative results establish that the proposed model is effective, accurate, and robust for COVID-19 screening. We demonstrate the proposed model for COVID-19 identification on a publicly available dataset COVID-CT, which contains 349 COVID-19 and 463 non-COVID-19 computed tomography images. The proposed method achieves an accuracy of 97.92%, sensitivity of 98.85%, specificity of 97.21%, AUC of 98.03%, precision of 98.44%, and F1 score of 97.52%. Our approach obtained state-of-the-art performance, according to experimental results, which is helpful for COVID-19 screening. This new conceptual framework is proposed to play an influential task in the issue facing COVID-19 and related ailments, with the availability of few datasets. Full article
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Article
Relationships between ENDS-Related Familial Factors and Oral Health among Adolescents in the United States
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020402 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The influence of familial and social environments plays a significant role in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) use and may contribute to poor oral health among adolescents. This study utilized the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) database and included youths aged [...] Read more.
The influence of familial and social environments plays a significant role in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) use and may contribute to poor oral health among adolescents. This study utilized the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) database and included youths aged 12 to 17 years who reported no history of dental health issues at baseline. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were used to examine the association between END-related familial factors and oral health among adolescents in the United States, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. The sample consisted of 3892 adolescents (weighted N = 22,689,793). Parents’ extremely negative reaction towards ENDS when they found their children using ENDS (AOR = 0.309) was connected to a lower risk of oral health issues. The findings suggest that clinicians and policymakers need to consider the roles of these factors when developing strategies to improve oral health outcomes. Full article
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Article
Similarities and Differences between EU Platforms in the AHA and AAL Domains from a Software Viewpoint
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020401 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 353
Abstract
The EU PlatformUptake project’s main goal is to investigate the usage of EU open and partly-open platforms in active and healthy aging (AHA) and ambient-assisted living (AAL) domains, from a software viewpoint. The aim of the project was to provide tools for a [...] Read more.
The EU PlatformUptake project’s main goal is to investigate the usage of EU open and partly-open platforms in active and healthy aging (AHA) and ambient-assisted living (AAL) domains, from a software viewpoint. The aim of the project was to provide tools for a deeper interpretation and examination of the platforms, gather user feedback, and use it to improve the state-of-the-art approach in the AHA and AAL domains, and define instructions to enhance the platforms within the recommended order. The emphasis is on the software viewpoint for decision makers. In this paper, we present (i) the PlatformUptake methodology for AHA open platform assessments and its main objectives; (ii) clustering of the analyzed platforms; and (iii) the taxonomies generated from the text descriptions of the chosen platforms. With the use of the clustering tools, we present which platforms could be grouped together due to their similarities. Different numbers of clusters were obtained with two clustering approaches, resulting in the most informative two and four cluster groups. The platforms could be rather neatly presented in this way and, thus, potentially guide future platform structuring. Moreover, taxonomies, i.e., decision trees of platforms, were generated to easily determine each specific platform or to find platforms with the desired properties. Altogether, the computer comprehension of the platforms may be important additions to the human way of dealing with the AHA platforms, influencing future design, publications, related work, and research. Full article
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Article
Impact of the Intake of Snacks and Lifestyle Behaviors on Obesity among University Students Living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020400 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 529
Abstract
Unhealthy eating habits increase the risk of obesity. This study investigated the association between obesity and the intake of snacks and lifestyle behaviors among university students in Saudi Arabia. The study included 662 students aged 18–29 years, studying at King Abdulaziz University. An [...] Read more.
Unhealthy eating habits increase the risk of obesity. This study investigated the association between obesity and the intake of snacks and lifestyle behaviors among university students in Saudi Arabia. The study included 662 students aged 18–29 years, studying at King Abdulaziz University. An online survey collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, height, and weight, to calculate body mass index (BMI), lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and snack intake. The prevalence of overweight and obese students was 18.6% and 12.7%, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors had insignificant effects on obesity. Obese students consumed two meals daily and more cereals during breakfast. Non-obese students consumed more beverages at breakfast and had their daily meals with their families. The frequency of intake of snacks had an insignificant effect on obesity. However, obese students had a significantly higher intake of potato chips, popcorn, and biscuits, while non-obese students had a significantly higher intake of salads compared with obese students. Students consumed significantly less fruit and vegetables, chocolate, biscuits, nuts, and dairy products as snacks when inside the university compared to outside. To reduce obesity among students, universities should ensure access to healthy snacks, and provide health education programs to encourage healthy eating habits and lifestyles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Public Health 2.0)
Article
Workshop on Blood Loss Quantification in Obstetrics: Improving Medical Student Learning through Clinical Simulation
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020399 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Purpose: To assess whether a clinical simulation-based obstetric blood loss quantification workshop for medical undergraduate trainees improves theoretical–practical knowledge, along with self-assurance and self-confidence. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental pre-post learning study conducted at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Unit of the Hospital Gregorio [...] Read more.
Purpose: To assess whether a clinical simulation-based obstetric blood loss quantification workshop for medical undergraduate trainees improves theoretical–practical knowledge, along with self-assurance and self-confidence. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental pre-post learning study conducted at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Unit of the Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain. Participants were volunteer students in their fourth year of a 6-year degree course in Medicine. The study period was divided into the stages: pre-workshop, intra-workshop, 2 weeks post-workshop and 6 months post-workshop. In the pre-workshop stage, students completed a brief online course in preparation for the workshop. The effectiveness of the workshop was assessed through multiple choice tests and self-administered questionnaires. Data were compared between time-points using statistical tests for paired samples. Results: Of the 142 students invited (age 21.94 ± 3.12 years), 138 accepted the offer of the workshop (97.2%), and 85.4% had no experience in managing blood loss. Between the stages pre- and 2 weeks post-workshop, significant improvements were observed in theoretical–practical knowledge (μ = 1.109), self-assurance and self-confidence. At the 6 months post-workshop stage, theoretical–practical knowledge diminished compared with 2 weeks post-workshop, returning to pre-workshop levels, while self-assurance and confidence failed to vary significantly in the longer term. Conclusions: The obstetric workshop improved theoretical–practical knowledge and the self-assurance and confidence of the medical students. Results 2 weeks post-workshop were maintained up until 6 months after the training intervention. The clinical simulation-based workshop was perceived by the students as useful and necessary. Full article
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Article
The Effect of the Schroth Rehabilitation Exercise Program on Spinal and Feet Alignment in Adolescent Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Pilot Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020398 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Background: This study investigated the therapeutic effects of 12-week Schroth rehabilitation exercises (SRE) in improving Cobb’s angle, scoliometer readings, lumbar lordosis, and the calcaneal valgus angle of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: This pilot study included 60 adolescent patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigated the therapeutic effects of 12-week Schroth rehabilitation exercises (SRE) in improving Cobb’s angle, scoliometer readings, lumbar lordosis, and the calcaneal valgus angle of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: This pilot study included 60 adolescent patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis by a rehabilitation physician based on a Cobb’s angle of ≥10° using total anteroposterior plain radiography. Patients were classified into groups with a Cobb’s angle of 10–19° (G1), 20–29° (G2), and ≥30° (G3). Cobb’s angle, scoliometer readings, lumbar lordosis, and calcaneal valgus angles were analyzed before and after the 12-week SRE. Results: SRE improved Cobb’s angle (−6.85), scoliometer readings (−2.80), lumbar lordosis (4.23), and calcaneal valgus angles (left, −3.76; right, −2.83) regardless of the initial scoliosis angle, and within-group changes were significant (p < 0.001). In this study, participants in all three groups had undergone SRE, regardless of initial scoliosis severity, and the findings were significant. Conclusion: SRE can be used for patients with idiopathic scoliosis to improve asymmetric musculoskeletal morphology and the patient’s quality of life. Full article
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Article
Can Social Media Profiles Be a Reliable Source of Information on Nutrition and Dietetics?
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020397 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Background: Social media are growing worldwide platforms for unlimited exchange of various content. Owing to their accessibility and short form, they can be utilized as usable, wide-range communication and information tools for companies, scientific communities, patient advocacy organizations, and special interest groups. This [...] Read more.
Background: Social media are growing worldwide platforms for unlimited exchange of various content. Owing to their accessibility and short form, they can be utilized as usable, wide-range communication and information tools for companies, scientific communities, patient advocacy organizations, and special interest groups. This study aimed to investigate whether Instagram® profiles can be reliable sources of information and knowledge about nutrition and dietetics. Materials and Methods: Random identification of nutrition-related posts was performed using a built-in website search engine. Posts were searched by five popular hashtags: #nutrition, #nutritionist, #instadiet, #diet, and #dietitian, 250 newest posts of each. Advertisement posts were discarded. Each eligible post was then categorized (dietetics, fitness, motivation, other) and assessed with regard to the quality of nutrition information provided (five levels from none to good quality), popularity (number of followers, likes, and comments), and engagement measures (like, comment, and engagement ratio). Results: A total of 1189 posts were reviewed. The overall quality of the content regarding nutritional knowledge was extremely low (93.9% of all posts), also when divided into categories. Among all posts, 63.8% were categorized as “nutrition and dietetics”, while “fitness”, “motivation”, and “other” categories comprised 8.2%, 4.8%, and 23.2% of the posts, respectively. Posts recognized as dietetics were the most liked (mean n = 116 likes per post) and of the highest quality. However, those motivational raised the greatest degree of engagement (32.7%). Posts with cooking recipes were the most commented. Conclusions: Random post search cannot provide viewers with valuable nutrition information. A dedicated search for high-quality professional profiles is preferred to obtain quality information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Social Media in Innovative Digital Health)
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Article
Effect of Nurses’ Grit on Nursing Job Performance and the Double Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020396 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Nursing performance can be an evaluation indicator of hospitals. Therefore, improving it positively affects the development of nurses, patients, guardians, hospitals, and society. This descriptive correlational study was conducted to provide basic data necessary to improve nurses’ work performance by examining the effects [...] Read more.
Nursing performance can be an evaluation indicator of hospitals. Therefore, improving it positively affects the development of nurses, patients, guardians, hospitals, and society. This descriptive correlational study was conducted to provide basic data necessary to improve nurses’ work performance by examining the effects of nurses’ grit on nursing job performance and mediating effects of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The study participants were 186 nurses working at a university hospital in G province, Korea, with working experience of more than six months. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Windows program version 21.0, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple linear regression according to the purpose of the analysis in this study. In addition, PROCESS macro was used to test the mediating effect. We examined the mediating effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the relationship between nurses’ grit and nursing job performance. We found that the indirect effect of job satisfaction was significant in that nurses’ grit influenced nursing job performance (B = 0.11, CI = 0.05–0.21). The indirect effect of organizational commitment was also significant in influencing nurses’ grit on nursing job performance (B = 0.12, CI = 0.04–0.22). These findings contribute to the improvement of nurses’ nursing performance. When grit improves, efforts are made to achieve job satisfaction and maintain organizational commitment through focusing on work with steady effort and interest in the goal. Based on this study, enhancing the grit that predicts individual nurses’ achievement can enhance nursing job performance. Nevertheless, interventions to improve job satisfaction and organizational commitment should be developed and implemented. Full article
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Article
Spatial Healthcare Accessibility: A District-Level Analysis of Travel for Outpatient Diabetology in Czechia
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020395 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Assessments of regional differences in the accessibility and capacity of health services often rely on indicators based on data from the permanent residents of a given region. However, a patient does not always use health services in their place of residence. The objective [...] Read more.
Assessments of regional differences in the accessibility and capacity of health services often rely on indicators based on data from the permanent residents of a given region. However, a patient does not always use health services in their place of residence. The objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of spatial healthcare accessibility on regional differences in the provision and take-up of health services, using outpatient diabetology in Czechia as a case study. The analysis is grounded in monitoring the differences in the patient’s place of residence and the location of the healthcare provided. Anonymized individual data of the largest Czech health insurance company for 2019 are used (366,537 patients, 2,481,129 medical procedures). The data are aggregated at the district level (LAU 1). It has been identified that regions where patients travel outside their area of residence to access more than half of their healthcare needs are mostly in local/regional centres. Moreover, these patients increase the number of medical services provided in local/regional centres, often by more than 20%, which has been reflected in greater healthcare capacity in these centres. To assess regional differences, it is important to take the spatial healthcare accessibility into account and also consider why patients travel for healthcare. Reasons could be the insufficient local capacity, varied quality of health services or individual factors. In such cases, healthcare actors (health insurance companies, local government etc.) should respond to the situation and take appropriate action to reduce these dissimilarities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Policy)
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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Use of Protein Supplements among Saudi Adults: Gender Differences
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020394 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Saudi Arabia has witnessed recent reforms and positive socio-political changes that have led to increased opportunities for women to participate in fitness centers. This study investigated protein supplement consumption among Saudi females compared with that among males and examined the knowledge and attitudes [...] Read more.
Saudi Arabia has witnessed recent reforms and positive socio-political changes that have led to increased opportunities for women to participate in fitness centers. This study investigated protein supplement consumption among Saudi females compared with that among males and examined the knowledge and attitudes of the participants toward protein supplement use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh using a previously validated, self-administered online survey. The questionnaire included items related to the prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and practice of protein supplementation. The participants were 354 adults (58.2% were females). The results showed that over 47% of the participants attended fitness centers with more male (80.3%) than female (41%) attendees. Nearly 50% of the participants consumed protein supplements, with males (68.7%) using significantly (p < 0.001) more protein supplements than females (35.6%). The powdered form was most commonly consumed. The percentage of gym attendees (67.8%) who used protein supplements was higher than that among non-gym attendees (32.2%). Gaining muscles (56.1%) followed by compensating for protein deficiency (28.6%) were the reasons for taking protein supplements, with a significant gender difference (p < 0.001). Coaches provided the most information on protein supplements. The participants appeared to be knowledgeable about protein supplements. Although over 68% of protein supplement users suffered from various symptoms, only 20% of the participants thought that there was no risk in taking protein supplements, with significant gender differences. It was concluded that Saudi male participants are twice more likely to attend the gym and consume protein supplements compared with females. Of both genders, those attending the gym consumed more protein supplements than non-gym attendees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Alcohol Consumption by Italian and Spanish University Students in Relation to Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and to the Food Neophobia: A Pilot Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020393 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 398
Abstract
This work aimed to relate alcohol consumption with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and with food neophobia (FN) among Italian and Spanish university students. Volunteers (n = 194, 108 Italian and 86 Spanish), recruited at the La Sapienza University of Rome [...] Read more.
This work aimed to relate alcohol consumption with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and with food neophobia (FN) among Italian and Spanish university students. Volunteers (n = 194, 108 Italian and 86 Spanish), recruited at the La Sapienza University of Rome and the Catholic University of Murcia, filled in standardized questionnaires to evaluate alcohol consumption (AUDIT), FN (FN Scale: FNS), and adherence to the MD (MDS-14, MED-55, QueMD). In addition to the previously reported QueMD sub-score (aMED), a sub-score for non-typical MD foods (ntMED, carbonated and/or sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks), butter, margarine, or cooking cream, and manufactured sweets, pastries, and cakes) was evaluated. Italian females had higher MED-55 and FNS scores, and a lower AUDIT score than Spaniards (p < 0.01). Students who stayed with their family (resident) were more adherent to MD than those who moved away from home. Resident Italians consumed less beer, hard liquors, and cocktails than Spaniards on Saturday nights (p < 0.01). There were negative correlations between AUDIT and QueMD (R squared: 0.137, p < 0.05), and AUDIT and ntMED (R squared: 0.201, p < 0.01) in Spaniards, however, there was no relationship between AUDIT and other MD scores. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that non-typical MD foods and Saturday night consumptions, related to being far from home, have a great impact on alcohol consumption. Full article
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Review
Is It Useful to Question the Recovery Behaviour of Patients with ME/CFS or Long COVID?
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020392 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
For the last few decades, medical guidelines have recommended treating patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) with graded exercise therapy (GET) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Moreover, doctors have questioned the recovery behaviour of these patients and stimulated them to follow these [...] Read more.
For the last few decades, medical guidelines have recommended treating patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) with graded exercise therapy (GET) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Moreover, doctors have questioned the recovery behaviour of these patients and stimulated them to follow these treatments so that they would be able to go back to work. In this article, we reviewed trials of GET and CBT for ME/CFS that reported on work status before and after treatment to answer the question of whether doctors should continue to question the recovery behaviour of patients with ME/CFS. Our review shows that more patients are unable to work after treatment than before treatment with CBT and GET. It also highlights the fact that both treatments are unsafe for patients with ME/CFS. Therefore, questioning the recovery behaviour of patients with ME/CFS is pointless. This confirms the conclusion from the British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), which has recently published its updated ME/CFS guideline and concluded that CBT and GET are not effective and do not lead to recovery. Studies on CBT and GET for long COVID have not yet been published. However, this review offers no support for their use in improving the recovery of patients with an ME/CFS-like illness after infection with COVID-19, nor does it lend any support to the practice of questioning the recovery behaviour of these patients. Full article
Review
Smartphone-Based Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid: An Innovative Tool to Improve Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Resource Setting
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020391 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is recommended by the World Health Organization for primary cervical cancer screening or triage of human papillomavirus-positive women living in low-resource settings. Nonetheless, traditional VIA with the naked-eye is associated with large variabilities in the detection of [...] Read more.
Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is recommended by the World Health Organization for primary cervical cancer screening or triage of human papillomavirus-positive women living in low-resource settings. Nonetheless, traditional VIA with the naked-eye is associated with large variabilities in the detection of pre-cancer and with a lack of quality control. Digital-VIA (D-VIA), using high definition cameras, allows magnification and zooming on transformation zones and suspicious cervical regions, as well as simultaneously compare native and post-VIA images in real-time. We searched MEDLINE and LILACS between January 2015 and November 2021 for relevant studies conducted in low-resource settings using a smartphone device for D-VIA. The aim of this review was to provide an evaluation on available data for smartphone use in low-resource settings in the context of D-VIA-based cervical cancer screenings. The available results to date show that the quality of D-VIA images is satisfactory and enables CIN1/CIN2+ diagnosis, and that a smartphone is a promising tool for cervical cancer screening monitoring and for on- and off-site supervision, and training. The use of artificial intelligence algorithms could soon allow automated and accurate cervical lesion detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment for Women's Health)
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Article
A Preliminary Italian Cross-Sectional Study on the Level of Digital Psychiatry Training, Knowledge, Beliefs and Experiences among Medical Students, Psychiatry Trainees and Professionals
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020390 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of digital psychiatry (DP), resulting in the need for a new skilled healthcare workforce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of training, knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of young mental health professionals and [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of digital psychiatry (DP), resulting in the need for a new skilled healthcare workforce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of training, knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of young mental health professionals and medical students in DP. An ad hoc cross-sectional survey was administered and descriptive analyses, Student’s t and ANOVA tests were conducted, together with an exploratory factor analysis, bivariate correlations and linear regression. Most of the sample (N = 239) declared that DP was never discussed within their academic training (89.1%), mainly revealing an overall lack of knowledge on the issue. Nevertheless, subjects mostly declared that DP represents a valuable therapeutic tool in mental health (80%) and that their training should include this topic (54.4%). Moreover, most subjects declared that digital interventions are less effective than face-to-face ones (73.2%), despite the emerging evidence that being trained in DP is significantly associated with the belief that digital and in-person interventions are comparable in their effectiveness (p ≤ 0.05). Strong positive correlations were found between the knowledge score (KS) and perceived significance index (PSI) (r = 0.148, p < 0.001), and KS and Digital Psychiatry Opinion (DPO) index (r = 0.193, p < 0.001). PSI scores statistically significantly predicted KS total scores (F(1, 237) = 5.283, R2 = 0.022, p = 0.022). KS scores statistically significantly predicted DPO total scores (F(1, 237) = 9.136, R2 = 0.037, p = 0.003). During the current pandemic, DP represented an ideal response to the forced physical distancing by ensuring the advantage of greater access to care. However, this kind of intervention is still uncommon, and mental health professionals still prove to be skeptical. The lack of formal training on DP during the academic years could be a limiting factor. Full article
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Article
Risk Assessment-Oriented Design of a Needle Insertion Robotic System for Non-Resectable Liver Tumors
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020389 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Medical robotics is a highly challenging and rewarding field of research, especially in the development of minimally invasive solutions for the treatment of the worldwide leading cause of death, cancer. The aim of the paper is to provide a design methodology for the [...] Read more.
Medical robotics is a highly challenging and rewarding field of research, especially in the development of minimally invasive solutions for the treatment of the worldwide leading cause of death, cancer. The aim of the paper is to provide a design methodology for the development of a safe and efficient medical robotic system for the minimally invasive, percutaneous, targeted treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, which can be extended with minimal modification for other types of abdominal cancers. Using as input a set of general medical requirements to comply with currently applicable standards, and a set of identified hazards and failure modes, specific methods, such as the Analytical Hierarchy Prioritization, Risk Analysis and fuzzy logic Failure Modes and Effect Analysis have been used within a stepwise approach to help in the development of a medical device targeting the insertion of multiple needles in brachytherapy procedures. The developed medical device, which is visually guided using CT scanning, has been tested for validation in a medical environment using a human-size ballistic gel liver, with promising results. These prove that the robotic system can be used for the proposed medical task, while the modular approach increases the chances of acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minimally Invasive Techniques and Advanced Surgical Procedures)
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Case Report
The Use of a Video-Assisted Intubating Stylet Technique in a Critically Ill and Contagious COVID-19 Patient
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020388 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Tracheal intubation and ventilatory support are among the important treatments in patients infected with COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe hypoxia. The intubating team often uses video-assisted intubation equipment to ensure a safe and successful tracheal intubation. In this case [...] Read more.
Tracheal intubation and ventilatory support are among the important treatments in patients infected with COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe hypoxia. The intubating team often uses video-assisted intubation equipment to ensure a safe and successful tracheal intubation. In this case report, we demonstrate for the first time, the use of the Shikani video-assisted intubating stylet and the Shikani intubating technique as a safe, speedy, and effective way to intubate a critically ill and highly contagious COVID-19 patient. In addition to the conventional consensus guidelines that are currently available for good practice (such as the proper use of personal protection equipment, etc.), we demonstrated that using the Shikani video-assisted intubating stylet is a reliable and proficient technique that is easy to learn while minimizing the risk of COVID-19 exposure of the airway personnel. Full article
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Article
Antibiotic Usage in Surgical Prophylaxis: A Retrospective Study in the Surgical Ward of a Governmental Hospital in Riyadh Region
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020387 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Antibiotic prophylaxis is used to decrease the bacterial load in the wound to assist the natural host defenses in preventing the occurrence of surgical site infections. The present study aimed to investigate trends in using antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical ward of a [...] Read more.
Antibiotic prophylaxis is used to decrease the bacterial load in the wound to assist the natural host defenses in preventing the occurrence of surgical site infections. The present study aimed to investigate trends in using antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical ward of a governmental hospital in the Riyadh Region and included collecting data concerning the use of antibiotic prophylaxis from medical electronic records. During 2020, most of the surgical patients received systemic antibiotics (82.40%). The most prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (28.44%) and metronidazole (26.36%). The study also found that most of the patients received antibiotics for seven days or for five days, and only 1.08% of the patients received antibiotics appropriately for a maximum of one day. The present study showed that there was a major problem in selecting the correct antibiotic and in the duration of its use compared with the recommendations of the surgical prophylaxis guideline that was issued by the Saudi Ministry of Health. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the adherence to the recommendations of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines in order to reduce the occurrence of negative consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medication Management)
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Article
Not Only COVID-19: Prevalence and Management of Latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection in Three Penitentiary Facilities in Southern Italy
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020386 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis in prisoners are higher than the general population and are two public health concerns, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with LTBI [...] Read more.
Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis in prisoners are higher than the general population and are two public health concerns, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with LTBI among the inmate population detained in three Southern Italian penitentiaries. Tuberculin intradermal reaction skin test was performed on the inmates who agreed to participate in the study. In case of positivity, the QuantiFERON-TB test was performed. In those positive to QuantiFERON, chest X-ray films were performed, and treatment initiated. A total of 381 inmates accepted to participate. The prevalence of LTBI was 4.2%. In the analysis, LTBI was associated with no self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within the prisons, and 10% of subjects admitted the use of inhaled drugs. No HIV coinfections were found. No cases of active symptomatic tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Our results confirm that incarceration increases the risk of tuberculous infection. Non-EU nationality and a history of drug addiction appear to be major risk factors for tuberculosis infection in the penitentiary setting. Reinforcing tuberculosis control is essential to prevent its transmission in prisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health in Prison)
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Review
Telehealth and Artificial Intelligence Insights into Healthcare during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020385 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Soon after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was proclaimed, digital health services were widely adopted to respond to this public health emergency, including comprehensive monitoring technologies, telehealth, creative diagnostic, and therapeutic decision-making methods. The World Health Organization suggested that artificial intelligence might be [...] Read more.
Soon after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was proclaimed, digital health services were widely adopted to respond to this public health emergency, including comprehensive monitoring technologies, telehealth, creative diagnostic, and therapeutic decision-making methods. The World Health Organization suggested that artificial intelligence might be a valuable way of dealing with the crisis. Artificial intelligence is an essential technology of the fourth industrial revolution that is a critical nonmedical intervention for overcoming the present global health crisis, developing next-generation pandemic preparation, and regaining resilience. While artificial intelligence has much potential, it raises fundamental privacy, transparency, and safety concerns. This study seeks to address these issues and looks forward to an intelligent healthcare future based on best practices and lessons learned by employing telehealth and artificial intelligence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare)
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Article
Advance Care Planning Preferences in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Community
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020384 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 473
Abstract
(1) Background: Hong Kong is experiencing population aging, but there is little research on advance care planning. This research asks for community-dwelling older adults’ views on advance care planning in order to provide a different angle to the results collected from nursing homes [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hong Kong is experiencing population aging, but there is little research on advance care planning. This research asks for community-dwelling older adults’ views on advance care planning in order to provide a different angle to the results collected from nursing homes and hospitals. (2) Methods: The targeted respondents were people aged 55 or above. A total of 282 questionnaires were collected using the random sampling method. Respondents were asked whether they would make an advance care plan, whether they would prepare for their death, and whether they had received any death education; they were also given eight statements related to treatments and decision making. (3) Results: The study found that only 17% of the respondents would like to use advance care planning, even after it was explained to them. Advance care planning favorers would be more likely to insist on having wills and would be more likely to trust doctors rather than family members. (4) Conclusions: The results also suggested that the medical care and social support for end-of-life patients should be improved. The results also showed the importance of medical professionals as they showed that respondents wanted advice on end-of-life decision-making from medical professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community Care)
Article
The Association of Persistent Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety with Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndrome Events: A Prospective Observational Study
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020383 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of persistent symptoms of depression and anxiety in a second acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event. Data presented in this study were from an RCT study. A follow-up for 24 months after baseline to [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of persistent symptoms of depression and anxiety in a second acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event. Data presented in this study were from an RCT study. A follow-up for 24 months after baseline to detect a second ACS event among 1162 patients from five hospitals. Hierarchal Cox regression analyses were used. The results showed that persistent depression only (HR 2.27; 95% CI: 1.35–3.81; p = 0.002), and comorbid persistent depression and anxiety (HR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.03–3.98; p = 0.040) were the significant predictors of a second ACS event. Secondary education level compared to primary educational level (HR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43–0.93; p = 0.020) and college or more education level compared to primary educational level (HR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27–0.84; p = 0.011) were the only demographic variables that were significant predictors of a second event. The study reveals that attention must be paid by healthcare providers to assess and manage persistent depression; particularly when it is co-morbid with anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chronic Care)
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Case Report
Comprehensive CAD/CAM Prosthetic Rehabilitation Management in a Young Patient with Agenesis: A Case Report
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020382 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
With the advancement in ceramic restorations bonded to the tooth structure, the treatment has become a practicable and conservative option to restore teeth with shape alteration owing to the high demand for aesthetics, with minimum tooth preparation. This article describes the case of [...] Read more.
With the advancement in ceramic restorations bonded to the tooth structure, the treatment has become a practicable and conservative option to restore teeth with shape alteration owing to the high demand for aesthetics, with minimum tooth preparation. This article describes the case of a 25-year-old man who was dissatisfied with his smile. After an assessment of the clinical situation, a decision was made to place a full-mouth prosthodontic rehabilitation (monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, IPS E-max CAD) with minimal tooth preparation, which figures as a conservative full-coverage approach. The restoration of an aesthetic smile resulted in the patient’s satisfaction. Bonding of all monolithic veenerlay and crowns onto minimally prepared teeth figures as conservative treatment in cases of hypodontia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthcare and Special Needs Patients)
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Article
New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation Is a Risk Factor of Ischemic Stroke in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020381 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) induces atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke, and COPD with AF increased ischemic stroke (IS) in a cross-sectional study. Therefore, healthcare providers must be concerned and well-informed about this particular situation. For this study, inpatient data were obtained from [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) induces atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke, and COPD with AF increased ischemic stroke (IS) in a cross-sectional study. Therefore, healthcare providers must be concerned and well-informed about this particular situation. For this study, inpatient data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database in 2010. We identified patients who were hospitalized with COPD (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] is 491, 492, and 496). Patients who experienced AF (ICD-9-CM to 427.3) during the same admission or after COPD hospitalization were discharged and defined as new-onset AF. The outcome was IS (ICD-9-CM as 433–437). The factors related to IS after COPD were used for multivariate logistic regression. There were 4177/62,163 (6.72%) patients with incident IS. The risk of IS after COPD hospitalization was shown to have an adjusted odds ratio of 1.749 (95% CI: 1.584–1.93, p < 0.001) for patients with new-onset AF. Other factors included advanced age, atherosclerosis factors, comorbidity severity, sepsis and lower-level hospital admission. In conclusion, COPD patients suffering from new-onset AF had an increased incidence of IS in the population observation study. New-onset AF was an omit risk factor for IS in COPD in the Chinese population. Full article
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Article
Applying a Health Access Framework to Understand and Address Food Insecurity
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020380 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) in United States households has fluctuated between 10% and 15% for the past two decades, well above the Healthy People 2030 goal. FI is associated with increased use of healthcare services and the prevalence of multiple health [...] Read more.
The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) in United States households has fluctuated between 10% and 15% for the past two decades, well above the Healthy People 2030 goal. FI is associated with increased use of healthcare services and the prevalence of multiple health conditions. Our current efforts to address FI may be limited by measures that lack granularity, timeliness, and consideration of larger food access barriers (e.g., availability of food providers and lack of knowledge regarding where to obtain food). If the Healthy People 2030 goal of reducing FI to 6% is to be met, we need better and faster methods for monitoring and tracking FI in order to produce timely interventions. In this paper, we review key contributors of FI from an access barrier perspective, investigate the limitations of current FI measures, and explore how data from one nonprofit organization may enhance our understanding of FI and facilitate access to resources at the local level. We also propose a conceptual framework illustrating how nonprofit organizations may play an important role in understanding and addressing FI and its intertwined social needs, such as housing and healthcare problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Preventive Medicine)
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Systematic Review
“Wire Syndrome” Following Bonded Orthodontic Retainers: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020379 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 548
Abstract
(1) Background and objective: Tooth movements described as unexplained, aberrant, unexpected, unwanted, or undesirable can occur in the presence of an intact orthodontic retention wire, without detachment or fracture. This iatrogenic phenomenon, known little or not by many practitioners, responsible for significant dental [...] Read more.
(1) Background and objective: Tooth movements described as unexplained, aberrant, unexpected, unwanted, or undesirable can occur in the presence of an intact orthodontic retention wire, without detachment or fracture. This iatrogenic phenomenon, known little or not by many practitioners, responsible for significant dental and periodontal complications, both functional and aesthetic, is called “Wire Syndrome” (WS). It is therefore considered an undesirable event of bonded orthodontic retainers, which must be differentiated from an orthodontic relapse. The objective was to perform, for the first time, a systematic review of the literature in order to define the prevalence of WS and to study its associated clinical characteristics. (2) Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed following the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and recommendations using an electronic search strategy on four databases complemented by a manual search. All the prospective and retrospective clinical studies, including case reports and series, written in English or French, clearly mentioning the description, detection, or management of WS were included. Three independent blinding review authors were involved in study selection, data extraction, and bias assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). (3) Results: Of 1891 results, 20 articles published between 2007 and 2021 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a globally high risk of bias since 16 articles were case report/series. The analysis of each article allowed the highlighting of WS through 13 categories, as follows: prevalence, apparition delay, patient characteristics, arch and tooth involved, families of movements, dental and periodontal consequences, type of wire, risk factors, etiologies, treatment, and preventive approach. (4) Conclusion: This systematic review of the literature elaborated a synthesis on WS, allowing general practitioners, periodontists, and orthodontists to understand this adverse event, to facilitate the diagnostic approach, and to underline preventive measures against WS. This review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; number CRD42021269297). Full article
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