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Article

Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Internal Ballistics for Solid Propellant Combinations

1
University Defense Center of Air Force Academy, 30720 San Javier, Spain
2
Department of Thermal and Fluid Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30202 Cartagena, Spain
3
Lynx Simulations S.L., Calle del Metal 4, 30009 Murcia, Spain
4
EXPAL Systems S.A., Avda. Partenón 16, 28042 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Theodore E. Simos and Charampos Tsitouras
Mathematics 2021, 9(21), 2714; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212714
Received: 28 September 2021 / Revised: 18 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 26 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing)
The processes that take place within the Internal Ballistics cycle of an artillery round are highly influenced by geometric effects. They are also highly affected by the presence of a combination of energetic materials, such as the propellant, igniter, primer, and the combustible cartridge cases. For a more realistic simulation of these phenomena, a multidimensional and multicomponent numerical model is presented, based on adaptations and improvements of previous models of conservation equations, maintaining a two-phase, Eulerian–Eulerian approximation. A numerical method based on Finite Volumes and conservative flux schemes (Rusanov and AUSM+), with the ability to predict detonation effects, is proposed. As a result, a versatile 3D numerical code was obtained that was tested in the simulation of artillery firing with conventional and modular charges (MACS). Results show the code is able to characterize the heat and mass transfer of the different energetic materials during the combustion of the propellant and the cartridge cases, the gas expansion, and the projectile acceleration. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internal Ballistics; propellants; combustion; multi-phase flow; UXGun3D; modeling Internal Ballistics; propellants; combustion; multi-phase flow; UXGun3D; modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Otón-Martínez, R.A.; Velasco, F.J.S.; Nicolás-Pérez, F.; García-Cascales, J.R.; Mur-Sanz de Galdeano, R. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Internal Ballistics for Solid Propellant Combinations. Mathematics 2021, 9, 2714. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212714

AMA Style

Otón-Martínez RA, Velasco FJS, Nicolás-Pérez F, García-Cascales JR, Mur-Sanz de Galdeano R. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Internal Ballistics for Solid Propellant Combinations. Mathematics. 2021; 9(21):2714. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212714

Chicago/Turabian Style

Otón-Martínez, Ramón A., Francisco J.S. Velasco, Francisco Nicolás-Pérez, José R. García-Cascales, and Ramón Mur-Sanz de Galdeano. 2021. "Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Internal Ballistics for Solid Propellant Combinations" Mathematics 9, no. 21: 2714. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212714

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