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Article

Mixed Convective Stagnation Point Flow towards a Vertical Riga Plate in Hybrid Cu-Al2O3/Water Nanofluid

1
Institute for Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Fakulti Teknologi Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal 76100, Melaka, Malaysia
3
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Mathematics, Babeş-Bolyai University, R-400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mathematics 2020, 8(6), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8060912
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 29 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 May 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering Mathematics)
The present work highlights the stagnation point flow with mixed convection induced by a Riga plate using a Cu-Al 2 O 3 /water hybrid nanofluid. The electromagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) force generated from the Riga plate was influential in the heat transfer performance and applicable to delay the boundary layer separation. Similarity transformation was used to reduce the complexity of the governing model. MATLAB software, through the bvp4c function, was used to compute the resulting nonlinear ODEs. Pure forced convective flow has a distinctive solution, whereas two similarity solutions were attainable for the buoyancy assisting and opposing flows. The first solution was validated as the physical solution through the analysis of flow stability. The accretion of copper volumetric concentration inflated the heat transfer rate for the aiding and opposing flows. The heat transfer rate increased approximately up to an average of 10.216% when the copper volumetric concentration increased from 0.005 ( 0.5 % ) to 0.03 ( 3 % ) . View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid nanofluid; mixed convection; stagnation point flow; Riga plate; wall-parallel Lorentz force; dual solutions hybrid nanofluid; mixed convection; stagnation point flow; Riga plate; wall-parallel Lorentz force; dual solutions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khashi’ie, N.S.; Md Arifin, N.; Pop, I. Mixed Convective Stagnation Point Flow towards a Vertical Riga Plate in Hybrid Cu-Al2O3/Water Nanofluid. Mathematics 2020, 8, 912. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8060912

AMA Style

Khashi’ie NS, Md Arifin N, Pop I. Mixed Convective Stagnation Point Flow towards a Vertical Riga Plate in Hybrid Cu-Al2O3/Water Nanofluid. Mathematics. 2020; 8(6):912. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8060912

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khashi’ie, Najiyah S., Norihan Md Arifin, and Ioan Pop. 2020. "Mixed Convective Stagnation Point Flow towards a Vertical Riga Plate in Hybrid Cu-Al2O3/Water Nanofluid" Mathematics 8, no. 6: 912. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8060912

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