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Open AccessArticle

Visual Cryptography Scheme with Essential Participants

Department of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mathematics 2020, 8(5), 838;
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computing Methods in Steganography and Multimedia Security)
Visual cryptography scheme (VCS) shares a binary secret image into multiple shadows printed on transparencies. Stacking shadows can visually decode the secret image without computational resources. Specifically, a (k, n) threshold VCS ((k, n)-VCS) shares a secret image into n shadows, stacking any k shadows can reveal the secret image by human visual system, while any less than k shadows cannot decode any information regarding the secret image. In practice, some participants (essentials) play more important roles than others (non-essentials). In this paper, we propose a (t, s, k, n) VCS with essential participants (so called (t, s, k, n)-EVCS). The secret image is shared into n shadows with s essentials and n-s non-essentials. Any k shadows, including at least t essentials, can reveal the secret image. The proposed scheme is constructed from a monotonic (K, N)-VCS. The condition and optimal choice of (K, N)-VCS to construct (t, s, k, n)-EVCS are given by solving integer programming model. The experimental results are conducted to verify the feasibility of our scheme. View Full-Text
Keywords: visual secret sharing; secret image sharing; visual cryptography; integer programming; essential shadows visual secret sharing; secret image sharing; visual cryptography; integer programming; essential shadows
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Li, P.; Yin, L.; Ma, J. Visual Cryptography Scheme with Essential Participants. Mathematics 2020, 8, 838.

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