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Visual Cryptography Scheme with Essential Participants

Department of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China
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Mathematics 2020, 8(5), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8050838
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computing Methods in Steganography and Multimedia Security)
Visual cryptography scheme (VCS) shares a binary secret image into multiple shadows printed on transparencies. Stacking shadows can visually decode the secret image without computational resources. Specifically, a (k, n) threshold VCS ((k, n)-VCS) shares a secret image into n shadows, stacking any k shadows can reveal the secret image by human visual system, while any less than k shadows cannot decode any information regarding the secret image. In practice, some participants (essentials) play more important roles than others (non-essentials). In this paper, we propose a (t, s, k, n) VCS with essential participants (so called (t, s, k, n)-EVCS). The secret image is shared into n shadows with s essentials and n-s non-essentials. Any k shadows, including at least t essentials, can reveal the secret image. The proposed scheme is constructed from a monotonic (K, N)-VCS. The condition and optimal choice of (K, N)-VCS to construct (t, s, k, n)-EVCS are given by solving integer programming model. The experimental results are conducted to verify the feasibility of our scheme. View Full-Text
Keywords: visual secret sharing; secret image sharing; visual cryptography; integer programming; essential shadows visual secret sharing; secret image sharing; visual cryptography; integer programming; essential shadows
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Li, P.; Yin, L.; Ma, J. Visual Cryptography Scheme with Essential Participants. Mathematics 2020, 8, 838.

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