In this paper, we study the interactions between microglia and neural stem cells and the impact of these interactions on the brain cells during a stroke. Microglia cells, neural stem cells, the damage on brain cells from the stroke and the impacts these interactions have on living brain cells are considered in the design of mathematical models. The models consist of ordinary differential equations describing the effects of microglia on brain cells and the interactions between microglia and neural stem cells in the case of a stroke. Variables considered include: resident microglia, classically activated microglia, alternatively activated microglia, neural stem cells, tissue damage on cells in the brain, and the impacts these interactions have on living brain cells. The first model describes what happens in the brain at the stroke onset during the first three days without the generation of any neural stem cells. The second model studies the dynamic effect of microglia and neural stem cells on the brain cells following the generation of neural stem cells and potential recovery after this stage. We look at the stability and the instability of the models which are both studied analytically. The results show that the immune cells can help the brain by cleaning dead cells and stimulating the generation of neural stem cells; however, excessive activation may cause damage and affect the injured region. Microglia have beneficial and harmful functions after ischemic stroke. The microglia stimulate neural stem cells to generate new cells that substitute dead cells during the recovery stage but sometimes the endogenous neural stem cells are highly sensitive to inflammatory in the brain.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited