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Article

Short Answer Detection for Open Questions: A Sequence Labeling Approach with Deep Learning Models

1
Department of Computer Science, Universidad Tecnológica de Nogales, Nogales 84094, Mexico
2
Department of Computer Science, Mathematics Research Center (CIMAT), Jalisco s/n, Valenciana, Guanajuato 36023, Mexico
3
Computational Sciences Department, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Sta. María Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840, México
4
Department of Computer Science, Universidad de la Sierra, Moctezuma 84560, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Nebojsa Bacanin and Catalin Stoean
Mathematics 2022, 10(13), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10132259
Received: 26 May 2022 / Revised: 21 June 2022 / Accepted: 22 June 2022 / Published: 28 June 2022
Evaluating the response to open questions is a complex process since it requires prior knowledge of a specific topic and language. The computational challenge is to analyze the text by learning from a set of correct examples to train a model and then predict unseen cases. Thus, we will be able to capture patterns that characterize answers to open questions. In this work, we used a sequence labeling and deep learning approach to detect if a text segment corresponds to the answer to an open question. We focused our efforts on analyzing the general objective of a thesis according to three methodological questions: Q1: What will be done? Q2: Why is it going to be done? Q3: How is it going to be done? First, we use the Beginning-Inside-Outside (BIO) format to label a corpus of targets with the help of two annotators. Subsequently, we adapted four state-of-the-art architectures to analyze the objective: Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT-BETO) for Spanish, Code Switching Embeddings from Language Model (CS-ELMo), Multitask Neural Network (MTNN), and Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM). The results of the F-measure for detection of the answers to the three questions indicate that the BERT-BETO and CS-ELMo architecture obtained the best effectivity. The architecture that obtained the best results was BERT-BETO. BERT was the architecture that obtained more accurate results. The result of a detection analysis for Q1, Q2 and Q3 on a non-annotated corpus at the graduate and undergraduate levels is also reported. We found that for detecting the three questions, only the doctoral academic level reached 100%; that is, the doctoral objectives did contain the answer to the three questions. View Full-Text
Keywords: question answering; open questions; academic document analysis; sequence labeling; deep learning question answering; open questions; academic document analysis; sequence labeling; deep learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

González-López, S.; Montes-Rosales, Z.G.; López-Monroy, A.P.; López-López, A.; García-Gorrostieta, J.M. Short Answer Detection for Open Questions: A Sequence Labeling Approach with Deep Learning Models. Mathematics 2022, 10, 2259. https://doi.org/10.3390/math10132259

AMA Style

González-López S, Montes-Rosales ZG, López-Monroy AP, López-López A, García-Gorrostieta JM. Short Answer Detection for Open Questions: A Sequence Labeling Approach with Deep Learning Models. Mathematics. 2022; 10(13):2259. https://doi.org/10.3390/math10132259

Chicago/Turabian Style

González-López, Samuel, Zeltzyn Guadalupe Montes-Rosales, Adrián Pastor López-Monroy, Aurelio López-López, and Jesús Miguel García-Gorrostieta. 2022. "Short Answer Detection for Open Questions: A Sequence Labeling Approach with Deep Learning Models" Mathematics 10, no. 13: 2259. https://doi.org/10.3390/math10132259

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