Colorectal cancer is the third most common and the fourth most lethal cancer worldwide. In most of cases, patients are diagnosed at an advanced or even metastatic stage, thus explaining the high mortality. The lack of proper clinical tests and the complicated procedures currently used for detecting this cancer, as well as for predicting the response to treatment and the outcome of a patient’s resistance in guiding clinical practice, are key elements driving the search for biomarkers. In the present overview, the different biomarkers (diagnostic, prognostic, treatment resistance) discovered through proteomics studies in various colorectal cancer study models (blood, stool, biopsies), including the different proteomic techniques used for the discovery of these biomarkers, are reviewed, as well as the various tests used in clinical practice and those currently in clinical phase. These studies define the limits and perspectives related to proteomic biomarker research for personalised medicine in colorectal cancer.
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