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Extraction and Characterization of Extracellular Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications from Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures and Seedlings: A Critical Review

by Mina Ghahremani 1,†, Kyla A. Stigter 1,† and William Plaxton 1,2,*
1
Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
2
Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicolas L. Taylor and Jacek R. Wisniewski
Proteomes 2016, 4(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes4030025
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub-cellular Proteomics)
Proteins secreted by plant cells into the extracellular space, consisting of the cell wall, apoplastic fluid, and rhizosphere, play crucial roles during development, nutrient acquisition, and stress acclimation. However, isolating the full range of secreted proteins has proven difficult, and new strategies are constantly evolving to increase the number of proteins that can be detected and identified. In addition, the dynamic nature of the extracellular proteome presents the further challenge of identifying and characterizing the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of secreted proteins, particularly glycosylation and phosphorylation. Such PTMs are common and important regulatory modifications of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes. This review explores the most recent methods in isolating and characterizing the plant extracellular proteome with a focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, highlighting the current challenges yet to be overcome. Moreover, the crucial role of protein PTMs in cell wall signalling, development, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell wall proteomics; secretome proteomics; post-translational modification; glycosylation; phosphorylation cell wall proteomics; secretome proteomics; post-translational modification; glycosylation; phosphorylation
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Ghahremani, M.; Stigter, K.A.; Plaxton, W. Extraction and Characterization of Extracellular Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications from Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures and Seedlings: A Critical Review. Proteomes 2016, 4, 25.

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