In the final step of our analysis, we investigated the full text of Canadian newspaper articles (Table 5
). Although an article might mention speech-related professionals and neuro-advancements it is not a given that these two areas are mentioned in relation to each other. They might be linked to totally different stories and as such could be classified as non-relevant or false-positives. Therefore, we report in Table 5
the roles of speech-related professionals in relation to neuro-advancements and in relation to non neuro-advancements (search strategy 1–3). As to the articles containing CIs (search strategy 4), not one mentioned SLPs or audiologists in a non-relevant fashion. All mentions were linked to some aspects of CI whether technical aspects or mentioning of social discussions around CI. As such, Table 5
has only one column for CIs (search strategy 4).
indicates that for the non-CI content, roles of speech-related professionals were mentioned much less in relation to neuro-advancements than outside of neuro-advancements. However, between the two non-CI columns which roles were mentioned most, and which roles were rarely or not mentioned were mostly the same.
Within the CI content, there were certain specific roles highlighted, such as programmer of CI, which could be seen also as service provision. However, the role of influencer of policy, ethics and governance discourses was also not mentioned as in the non-CI content.
Roles Evident within Context of Neuro-Advancements Omitting CIs
As reflected in Table 5
, the role of SLPs and audiologists was rarely mentioned. Even the role of service provider the role mentioned the most was mentioned only n
= 3 times. Within all the downloaded newspaper articles not one article reported on the role of SLPs or audiologists as advocates, researchers or influencers of neuro-advancements including neuro-policy, neuro-ethics and neuro-governance discussions.
Roles Evident within Context of CIs
As to the content reflected in Table 5
relating to CIs, the top roles mentioned for SLPs and audiologists were expert (n
= 16 articles), educator of others (n
= 8 articles), and service provider or advocates for their fields (n
= 6 articles).
Beyond these roles for SLPs, one article reported on a camp run by SLPs for children to meet other implant users and learn communication skills [96
]. Another article described SLPs as members of the CI team needing to provide assessment, therapy, and rehabilitation [97
One article reported on a workshop that was held for the personal and professional development of women in the speech field, specifically on CIs [98
As to CIs, some roles were exclusively linked to audiologists such as: promoter of CI (n
= 5 articles all before the year 2000) and programmer of CI (n
= 2 articles). As to the promoter of CI role, this was seen as either negative; for example, “So what does this device do? It offers false hope to the parents of deaf children. However, do parents have enough information on the alternative? Not likely: they are mobbed by the doctors or audiologists from the day deaf babies are born” [99
], or as needed; for example, “However, Dr. Sipke Pijl, an audiologist at St. Paul’s hospital, who does about five or six operations every year says he takes exception to the deaf community dictating what other people should do with their lives” [100
]. Two articles highlighted audiologists’ input on CIs, with one stating that CIs are not the only solution to hearing loss, as there is a lot of therapy and rehabilitation in the process as well [101
]. The other reported on an audiologist’s opinion that CIs work best in people who could speak before being deaf [102
Roles Evident Outside Context of Neuro-Advancements
Canadian newspapers rarely linked the role of the speech-related field to neuro-advancements including CIs. As to the roles evident without linkage to -neuro-advancements and CIs, one article from 2004 stated:
“Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) and Audiologists (Auds) are highly trained professionals who can help people make their lives richer, more productive and enjoyable through improved communication skills. What we do: Identify, assess, and rehabilitate children and adults with hearing difficulties and communication disorders. We counsel clients and families and provide referrals to other professionals. We are committed to ongoing research, public education, and training of new speech-language pathologists and audiologists. What we study: Acoustics, anatomy, assessment, counseling, hearing disorders, hearing aids, language development disorders, linguistics, neurology, neurophysiology, non-vocal communication, parent training, psychology phonetics, voice, speech and voice disorders, statistics, stuttering and research methods. Where we work: Speech-language pathologists and audiologists work in private practice, child development centres, pre-schools, schools, hospitals, rehabilitation centres, government agencies, health units, industry, colleges, universities and research centres throughout the world. We are often part of teams which include physicians, psychologists, social workers, nurses, teachers, counselors, occupational therapists and physical therapists”.
The results are summarized in Table 5
. More specifically, the role of service provider, whether in a clinical setting or in-home service, was evident in over n
= 71 articles, while the role of being an expert was indicated n
= 30 times by the many speech-related professionals quoted by name and the quoting of speech professional organizations and phrases such as: “audiologists say…”.
The role of being an educator was evident in n = 5 articles that highlighted talks given by professionals. The role of being an advocate for one’s profession was present in n = 9 articles, whether in questioning negative consequences such as cuts in numbers or changes of status, or positive aspects such as awareness month.
Being a researcher was evident in n
= 4 articles; for example, one article stated that audiologists are “committed to ongoing research, public education, and training of new audiologists” [103
]. Being an influencer of policy decision beyond advocating for one’s profession was only evident in n
= 2 articles. To give one quote, “The Canadian Pediatric Society and the Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists (CASLPA) recommend hearing screening for all newborns” [104
]. That one has to learn was present in one article [105
]. However, the issue of professional development and lifelong learning was not discussed. No article highlighted the importance of the role of the speech-related professionals to deal with neuro-advancement related policy, ethical, social and governance issues arising in relation to their fields.