A Universal Early Parenting Education Intervention in Community-Based Primary Care Settings: Development and Installation Challenges
2. The Parent and Infant Programme
- A documentary review incorporating programme manuals, (n = 4); implementation protocols and details (n = 3); delivery materials (n = 7); materials/handouts for parents (n = 9); the minutes from implementation team meetings (n = 12); the minutes from meetings between the research team and PIN programme implementers (n = 20); and reports/presentations produced by PIN programme developers (n = 4).
- Semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 19) recruited from the range of agencies/organisations involved in programme implementation (including community-based services and public health nursing and primary care services). Participants included personnel involved in program development and set-up, implementation planning and support/facilitation, and/or programme delivery including community-based service managers (n = 4), Public Health Nurses and Nurse Managers (n = 6), family support workers and community-based practitioners (n = 9).
3.1. Development of the Parent and Infant Programme
Data Gathering and Piloting
3.2. Installation of the PIN Programme
“I was very, very interested [in delivery], and a bit overwhelmed, when we went to the training because it was completely out of our comfort zone. As a Public Health Nurse, you are all the time giving information, trying to solve the problems, fix people’s problems, make it better, and this is a sort of a situation where you sit back and facilitate”.
Creating a Hospitable Environment for Innovation and Implementation
- Programme developers who are locally-based service providers with a track record of evidence-based service provision.
- Initiators such as stakeholders who held strategic/management positions within local systems and services (e.g., directors within PHN service; managers of community-based services).
- Prime movers or key actors including practitioners/personnel who were identified and selected by initiators as having an interest in, commitment to, and the appropriate skills for innovation and programme delivery.
- Training to support behavioural and practice change delivered to key stakeholders (e.g., a 2-day training session in the Incredible Years Parent and Baby/Parent and Toddler Programme) to provide practitioners with delivery skills.
- Formal coaching for practitioners to support ‘on the job’ learning; this was available between programme sessions and provided reflective assessment and feedback on delivery performance.
- Providing peer support for practitioners who were implementing aspects of the programme for the first time; this involved pairing newly trained practitioners with more experienced facilitators thereby providing access to technical, as well as ‘moral’ or emotional support throughout the implementation process (i.e., by addressing the fear of the unknown).
- Ensuring participation in programme delivery by making available programme materials/resources for implementers. Thus, the burden on practitioners was reduced by removing the need for those involved in programme delivery to deal with ‘administrative’ aspects of programme delivery (e.g., photocopying, printing, etc.).
Conflicts of Interest
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|Incredible Years Parent and Baby programme|
|Getting to know your baby |
Babies as intelligent learners
Providing physical, tactile and visual stimulation
Parents learning to read babies’ minds
Babies’ emerging sense of self
|Relief—Colic and wind; Emotional stress|
Relaxation—Soothes and aids sleep
Stimulation—Build immunity and help gain weight
Interaction—Aid bonding and reduce postnatal depression
|Stages of weaning, timing, quantities, feeding techniques |
Food safety and hygiene
Healthy eating principles
Practical cookery demonstration and advice
|Paediatric First Aid workshop|
(1 session)/Child safety †(1 session)
Dealing with injury, poisoning, choking and medical emergencies
Threats to child safety and child proofing home environments
|Dental health †|
|Principles of dental health|
|Toddler Healthy Eating|
|Food safety and hygiene|
Healthy eating principles
Practical cookery demonstration and advice
|Returning to work workshop|
|Information on childcare options|
Guidelines for choosing childcare
|Active Play†(2 sessions)/Play & Oral Language Development program *|
|Play skills and strategies|
Language development milestones
Practical play sessions and advice
|Incredible Years Parent and Toddler Programme|
|Child directed play promotes positive relationships|
Promoting toddler’s language with child directed coaching
Social and Emotion coaching
The art of praise and encouragement
Spontaneous incentives for toddlers
Handling separations and reunions
Positive discipline—effective limit setting
Positive discipline—handling misbehavior
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Hickey, G.; McGilloway, S.; Leckey, Y.; Stokes, A. A Universal Early Parenting Education Intervention in Community-Based Primary Care Settings: Development and Installation Challenges. Educ. Sci. 2018, 8, 178. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040178
Hickey G, McGilloway S, Leckey Y, Stokes A. A Universal Early Parenting Education Intervention in Community-Based Primary Care Settings: Development and Installation Challenges. Education Sciences. 2018; 8(4):178. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040178Chicago/Turabian Style
Hickey, Grainne, Sinead McGilloway, Yvonne Leckey, and Ann Stokes. 2018. "A Universal Early Parenting Education Intervention in Community-Based Primary Care Settings: Development and Installation Challenges" Education Sciences 8, no. 4: 178. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040178