Open Access This article is
- freely available
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 89; doi:10.3390/educsci8020089
Effect of Physical Education and Play Applications on School Social Behaviors of Mild-Level Intellectually Disabled Children
School of Health, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Bilecik 11230, Turkey
Faculty of Sports Sciences, Sakarya University, Sakarya 64100, Turkey
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
The aim of this study was to examine the influences of physical education and play practices on the school social behavior of mild-level intellectually disabled children. The quantitative research methods used were based on the pre-test, post-test, post-test-retention control group model and the general screening model. A simple random sampling type was used when constructing the sample group. To determine school social behavior, the School Social Behavior Scale (SSBS) was used. Physical education and play lessons were applied for two hours per week for 24 weeks with the purpose of obtaining data from these scales when applied to participants. The study sample group included 20 mild-level intellectually disabled children (14 boys, 6 girls), aged seven to nine years, who were trained at the Special Education and Rehabilitation Center that serves the County of Kocaeli, in the district of Izmit, Turkey. According to the results of the SSBS, we found a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the social competence of present persons’ interpersonal relations, self-control, and academic skills, and the aggressive-nervous persons in the sub-dimensions of negative social behaviors, in favor of the test group. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the antisocial-aggressive and destructive-demanding sub-dimensions was observed. We found that 24-week physical education and playing practices applied to mild-level intellectually disabled children had effects on children’s school social behavior.
Keywords:mild-level intellectual disabled children; school social behavior; physical education and play
Socialization means preparation for the adult world by learning the unique cultural values of society and reaching a state where adult behavior styles and forms can be applied to one’s own life [1,2,3,4]. Most educators, researchers, and psychologists agree that play is a form of social behavior in children [5,6,7]. Children with a mental deficiency are more limited in social skills than their peers with normal growth. These limitations create challenges for children with mental deficiency to communicate with their peers and other individuals in the community. In particular, the lack of opportunities to recognize and interact with each other, and the lack of communication skills of children with a mental deficiency are among the reasons for these difficulties. In addition, the limitations in communication skills create problems such as children not understanding the feelings of others, and not appropriately showing their feelings at the right time or the right place. In parallel, the quality of life of children with a mental disability is directly affected. Due to these deficiencies, the interaction of the student with their parents, friends, and teachers also negatively affects their professional life in adolescence. Using various physical exercises and sport tools has been shown to contribute to the development of physical capacity, and improve social behavior and mental skills [8,9]. Therefore, supportive training is needed for learning and the use of social skills [10,11,12]. This support can be provided by physical education and playing applications. The environment in which games are played are a comfortable and free field for the child. Many behaviors and rules are tested and learned in this environment [13,14,15,16,17,18,19]. Having or participating in play as a team member improves emotions and behaviors, such as working with children, helping others, empathy, being respectful to teammates and friends, complying with play rules and rules, and being respectful [20,21]. Researchers have also stated that children’s social and cognitive skills improved through their social role in play . The aim of the study was to examine the effects of physical education and play practices on school social behavior in children who have mild mental deficiencies.
2. Materials and Methods
Our quantitative research methods were based on the pre-test, post-test, post-test-retention control group model and general screening model. A simple random sampling type was used when constructing the sample group [23,24].
The sample group of the study included 20 children with mild mental disabilities aged 7 to 9 (14 male, 6 female) who were educated at the Special Education and Rehabilitation Center, which is in the district of İzmit, Kocaeli county, Turkey. The sampled groups were divided into an experimental group (7 boys, 3 girls) and a control group (7 boys, 3 girls) in terms of number, sex, and age.
2.2. Data Collection Tools
A personal information form, developed by the researchers, was applied to determine the age, sex, and situations of the students.
2.3. School Social Behaviour Scales (SSBS)
In the study, the School Social Behavior Scale (SSRS) developed by Merrell and translated into Turkish by Yüksel (2009) was used. The SSBS measures teachers’ observations of students, along with students’ behavior in the social and academic environment. The scales were developed in accordance with the five-point Likert model, allowing pre-school, primary, and secondary school teachers to evaluate their students separately. In the A form of the scale, Social Competence, 32 items are divided into three sub-dimensions: interpersonal relations, self-regulation, and academic skills. The B form, Negative Social Behaviors, includes a total of 65 articles with 33 items that are divided into three sub-dimensions: aggressive-nervous, antisocial-aggressive, and destructive-demanding.
The Pearson Moments Multiplication Correlation Coefficient (r) was used to examine the reliability of the scale in the studies we completed. The results were positive at p < 0.001 (r = 0.83 to 0.99). These analyses were also performed separately for the subscales of the two scales and the results demonstrated that the Turkish scale was as reliable as the original English form. Cronbach, Spearman Brown, and Guttman tests determined that results of the scale using Split-Half techniques were highly internally consistent with reliability values between r = 0.91 and 0.98. We determined that the reliability levels of the scales adapted to Turkish were as high as the original scales .
2.4. Data Collection
The study was performed for 2 days per week for 24 weeks, by arranging 2 h in the form of a play lesson and physical education, according to the situation of children attending the institution. A session was structured in the form of warm-up movements (15 min), group play events (25 min, balance, hand-eye coordination, hand-foot coordination, and rhythmic movements), and stretching events (5 min). The SSBS was completed by the teachers of the children before application. Over the 24 weeks, physical education and play lessons were provided and the SSBS was completed for a second time by the teachers of the children during the 25th week. The same evaluation was completed a third time by the teachers and the researcher 16 weeks after recording measurements to evaluate the permanence of the work.
2.5. Data Analysis
In addition to descriptive statistics used in the study, such as mean and standard deviation, the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare two independent groups, the Wilcoxon test was used to compare two dependent group averages, and the Friedman test was used to determine the differences between three or more dependent group averages. Statistical significance level was considered at p ≤ 0.05 (95% confidence interval) when comparing all data.
As shown in Table 1, the age characteristics of the experimental and control groups were as follows: three participants (30%) of the experimental group were seven years old, four participants (40%) were eight years old, and three participants (30%) were nine years old. In terms of the sex characteristics of the experimental and control group, three participants (30%) were girls and seven (70%) were boys.
As seen in Table 2, we determined that there was no statistical difference between the subscales of social behavior, negative behavior, and social competence in terms of experimental or control groups in school (p ≥ 0.05).
Table 3 shows that for the SSBS and social competence form, statistically significant differences were determined between pre- and post-test scores of the sub-dimensions of interpersonal relationships (Z = −2.805, p < 0.01), self-control (Z = −2.818, p < 0.01), and academic skills (Z = −2.809, p < 0.01). In the negative social behavior form subscales, whereas there was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-test groups of the antisocial aggressive and destructive-demanding dimension scores, (p > 0.05), there was a significant difference in the aggressive-nervous (Z = −2.524, p < 0.05) sub-dimension.
Table 4 shows no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-test groups of the aggressive-aggressive, antisocial aggressive, and destructive-demanding dimension scores from the sub-dimensions of the negative social behavior form (p > 0.05). However, according to sub-scores of the social competence form, statistically significant differences exist in the experimental group between the pre- and post-test scores between the dimensions of interpersonal relationship (Z = −3.599, p < 0.01), self-control (Z = −2.176, p < 0.05), and academic skills (Z = −2.962, p < 0.05).
Table 5 shows statistically significant differences were determined between the pre-test, post-test, and retention test values in the subscales of SSBS, and social competence (p ≤ 0.01) and negative social behaviors (p ≤ 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in terms of negative social behavior and destructive demanding sub-dimension (p > 0.05). When rank average and standard deviation scores were evaluated, retention test scores were found to be lower than pre-test scores.
Within the scope of this research, physical education and play lessons were systematically and regularly applied over 24 weeks to children aged seven to nine with mild mental deficiency, and analyses were completed on the SSBS, negative social behavior, and social competence forms subscales (Table 2). No statistical differences were found between the pre-test scores of the experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). Conversely, for the experimental group pre- to post-test (Table 3) SSBS social competence form, there were statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of the sub-dimensions of interpersonal relationships (Z = −2.805, p < 0.01), self-control (Z = −2.818, p < 0.01), and academic skills (Z = −2.809, p < 0.01). Whereas no statistically significant difference was found between the pre- and post-test scores of the negative social behavior form subscales and antisocial aggressive and destructive-demanding dimension scores (p > 0.05), a significant difference was recorded in the aggressive-nervous (Z = −2.524; p < 0.05) sub-dimension. As such, we can say that the practice had positive effects on the aggressive-nervous behaviors in the sub-dimensions of children’s social competence levels and negative social behaviors. However, although there was no significant result in the antisocial aggressive and destructive demanding sub-dimensions of negative social behavior sub-dimensions, a positive decrease occurred in the rank average scores for the experimental group (antisocial aggressive, post-test: 2.50, pre-test: 0.00), (destructive demand: post-test: 5.38, pre-test: 4.70). Furthermore, in the analyses performed between the post-test scores of the test and control groups (Table 4), a statistically significant difference between the final test scores of the dimensions of interpersonal relationships (Z = −3.599, p < 0.01), self-control (Z = −2.176, p < 0.05), and academic skills (Z = −2.962, p < 0.05) in the social competence form sub-dimensions. No significant difference was found in the scores of the negative social behaviors form, and the aggressive-aggressive, antisocial-aggressive, and destructive-demanding sub-dimensions (p > 0.05). However, the experimental group favorably showed a decrease in negative social behavior dimensions at the rank average level.
The literature states that regular physical activity studies conducted with individuals with mental deficiencies had positive effects on the characteristics of individuals including socialization, communication, effects on negative behaviors, daily life skills, healthy relationships, self-expression, academic skills, self-esteem, and quality of life [26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38]. These results support the findings of our study. Based on these findings, regular physical education and playing practices have an impact on social competence and negative social behavior of individuals with mild mental deficiency. According to the retention test results made after 16 weeks to determine if the physical education and playing practices applied within the scope of the research continued to have effects on the participants, in the experimental group SSBS, social competence and negative social behavior sub dimensions, a significant difference was found between the Friedman test result comparison statistic scores (p ≤ 0.001) regarding the difference between pre-test, post-test, and retention test (p ≤ 0.001). Conversely, negative social behaviors did not show a significant difference in the destructive-demanding subscale (p > 0.001), and the mean and standard deviation scores increased according to test scores (Table 5).
As a result of this research, the 24-week physical education and play interventions performed with children aged seven to nine years old with mental deficiency positively affected school social behaviors and, in addition, were positively correlated between social behaviors and retention tests. Future work should investigate the effect in different groups of disabilities. In particular, the literature should contribute toward increasing adapted physical education and play, and enabling all disability segments of society to benefit from these activities.
F.S. was the primary author shaping the main text and formatting the last version of the text in English. A.Y. contributed to the article in gathering data, scanning the literature, formatting the research, and finally revising the text.
This research received no external funding.
This work was produced from the Ph.D. thesis of Atike Yilmaz.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Demirkaya, H. Social Behavior through Individual and Organizational Dimensions Etiquette Protocol; Umuttepe Publishing: Kocaeli, Turkey, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Aytürk, N. Social Behavior—Social Behavior Rules; Nobel Publishing: Ankara, Turkey, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Burghardt, G.M. Defining and Recognizing Play; Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play; Pellegrini, A.D., Ed.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2010; pp. 9–18. [Google Scholar]
- Pellegrini, A.D. The Role of Play in Human Development; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Meral, B.F.; Cinisli, N.A. Special Education and 50 Sample Games; Vize Publishing: Ankara, Turkey, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Yıldız, E.; Şimşek, Ü.; Ağdaş, H. Effect of Educational Games Integrated Cooperative Leraning Model on Students’ Motivation Toward Science Learning and Social Skills. J. Kırşehir Educ. Fac. (JKEF) 2017, 18, 37–54. [Google Scholar]
- Alp, H.; Çamlıyer, H. The children participated with social adjustment disorders fused extracurricular movement education and game activities monitoring of children’s social adaptation process next two years. Int. J. Social Sci. Educ. Res. 2015, 1, 88–100. [Google Scholar]
- Badau, D. The educational impact of implementation the education through adventure discipline in physical education and sports academic curriculum. Phys. Educ. Stud. 2017, 21, 108–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Badau, A. Study of somatic, motor and functional effects of practicing initiation programs in water gymnastics and swimming by students of physical education and sports. Phys. Educ. Stud. 2017, 21, 158–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sucuoğlu, B.; Özokçu, O. Evaluate the social skills of the mainstreamed elementary students. Ankara Univ. Fac. Educ. Sci. J. Spec. Educ. 2005, 6, 41–57. [Google Scholar]
- Serin, Ç.G.E. Social Skill Levels in Adolescents with Mental Disabilities and Behavior Problems Levels of Perception by Comparing Parents’ General Investigation of Self-Efficacy. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Education Sciences, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Avcıoğlu, H. The effectiveness of cooperative learning and drama techniques in acquisition of social skills by the children with intellectual disabilities. Educ. Sci. 2012, 37, 110–125. [Google Scholar]
- Özdoğan, B. Children and Games; Anı Publishing: Ankara, Turkey, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Savaş, E.; Gülüm, K. The effects of teaching methods’ implementation with traditional games on achievement and permanence. Trakya Univ. J. Soc. Sci. 2014, 16, 175–194. [Google Scholar]
- Kaya, S.; Elgün, A. The influence of instructional games in science teaching on primary students’ achievement. Kastamonu Educ. J. 2015, 23, 329–342. [Google Scholar]
- Henniger, M.L. Teaching Young Children (and Introduction); Pearson Merril Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Zabelina, D.L.; Robinson, M.D. Child’s play: Facilitating the originality of creative output by a priming manipulation. Psychol. Aesthet. Creativity Arts 2010, 4, 57–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Badau, A.; Badau, D.; Serban, C.; Tarcea, M.; Victoria Rus, V. Wellness integrative profile 10 (WIP10)—An integrative educational tool of nutrition, fitness and health. J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 2018, 68, 882–887. [Google Scholar]
- Dusa, F.S.; Badau, A.; Badau, D.; Trambitas, C.; Brinzaniuc, K. Investigating the Deformation Parameters of PVC Fitness Balls in Relation to the Height and Body Mass Index of the Users. Mater. Plast. 2017, 54, 606–609. [Google Scholar]
- Karamustafaoğlu, O.; Kaya, M. Teaching the subject of ‘reflection and mirrors’ with educational games: A case of reflective race. J. Inq. Based Act. (JIBA) 2013, 3, 41–49. [Google Scholar]
- Kaya, İ.G. Play and historical role of play in education. Natl. J. Educ. Acad. 2018, 2, 66–78. [Google Scholar]
- Özyürek, A.; Çavuş, Z.S. Examination of the Status of Primary School Teachers Whether or Not they use Game-Based Teaching Techniques. Kastamonu Educ. J. 2016, 24, 2157–2166. [Google Scholar]
- Kozak, M. Scientific Research: Design, Writing and Publishing Techniques; Detay Publishing: Ankara, Turkey, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Coşkun, R.; Altunışık, R.; Bayraktaroğlu, S.; Yıldırım, E. Research Methods in Social Sciences; Sakarya Publishing: Sakarya, Turkey, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Yüksel, Y.M. A Turkish Version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS). Educ. Sci. Theory Pract. 2009, 9, 1605–1650. [Google Scholar]
- Nalbant, S. The Effects of 14 Weekly Physical Activity Program on Motor Development and Daily Living Activitiy in Children with Down Syndrome. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Health Sciences, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Yancı, H.B.A. The Importance of Sporting Recreational in the Psychological and Social Adaptation of Mentally Teachable Children. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Education Health Sciences, Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- İlhan, L. The effect of physical education upon the socialization levels of mentally handicapped children. Kastamonu Educ. J. 2008, 16, 315–324. [Google Scholar]
- İlhan, L.; Kırımoğlu, H.; Çokluk, G.F. The effect of specıal physıcal educatıon and sports program on the qualıty of lıfe of the chıldren with mental retardation. Nigde Univ. J. Phys. Educ. Sport Sci. 2013, 7, 1–8. [Google Scholar]
- İlhan, L.; Kırımoğlu, H.; Tunçel, M.; Altun, M. The effect of special athletics training to self-care skills’ level on mentally retarded children. J. Kırşehir Educ. Fac. (JKEF) 2015, 16, 145–160. [Google Scholar]
- Sonuç, A. The Effect of Sport on Mentally Disabled Peoples Anger. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Social Sciences, Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Karaman, Turkey, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Çavdar, B. The Effects of Physical Education and Sports Activities upon the Socialization Levels of Moderately and Severely Mentally Retarded Students. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Health Sciences, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Sukan, H.D. The Effect of Physical Activity on Socialization of Children with Intellectual Disabilities. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Health Sciences, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Demirdağ, M. A Research on Effects of Sport on Socialization of Educatible Mental Disabled Children. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Health Sciences, Dumlupınar University, Kütahya, Turkey, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Pehlevan, Ş. The Effect of Turkish Folk Dances in Making the Mentally Disabled Children Social. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Social Sciences, Sakarya University, Serdivan, Turkey, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Yaman, T. Research on the Effects of Physical Education and Games on the Acquisition of Social Skills of Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities. Master’s Thesis, Institute of Education Sciences, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur, Turkey, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Ekeland, E.; Heian, F.; Hagen, K.B. Can exercise improve self-esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br. J. Sports Med. 2005, 39, 792–798. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Brooks, B.A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D.R.; Chan, W.Y. Extracurricular Activities and The Development of Social Skills in Children with İntellectual and Specific learning Disabilities. J. Intell. Disabil. Res. 2015, 59, 678–687. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Table 1. The age and sex characteristics of participants and control group.
|Experimental Group||Control Group|
Table 2. Social behavior scale experiment control group pre-test Mann Whitney U comparative statistic.
|No.||Mean Rank||Sum of Rank||U||Z||P|
Table 3. School Social Behavior Scale (SSBS) experimental group pre-test and post-test Wilcoxon comparative statistic.
|N||Mean Ranks||Sum of Ranks||Z||P|
|Negative Ranks||0||0.00||0.00||−2.805||0.005 *|
|Negative Ranks||0||0.00||0.00||−2.818||0.005 *|
|Negative Ranks||0||0.00||0.00||−2.809||0.005 *|
|Negative Ranks||8||4.50||36.00||−2.524||0.012 *|
*p ≤ 0.005.
Table 4. Social behavior scale in school, test, and control group post-test comparative statistic.
|N||Mean Ranks||Sum of Ranks||U||Z||P|
|Interpersonal relationships||Exp.||10||15.25||152.50||2.500||−3.599||0.000 *|
|Academic skills||Exp.||10||14.40||144.00||11.000||−2.962||0.003 *|
*p ≤ 0.005.
Table 5. SSBS experimental group, pre-test, post-test, and retention test values comparison.
|Parameter||Std. S.||Mean Ranks||2||Sd.||p|
N = 10, * p ≤ 0.001.
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).