Next Article in Journal
What Really Makes Secondary School Students “Want” to Study Physics?
Next Article in Special Issue
Flipped Classroom Research: From “Black Box” to “White Box” Evaluation
Previous Article in Journal
Stay in the Box! Embedded Assistive Technology Improves Access for Students with Disabilities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Flipped Model to Traditional Classroom Learning in a Professional Pharmacy Course
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 83;

A Mixed Methods Study on the Effect of Flipping the Undergraduate Medical Classroom

Office of Undergraduate Medical Education, Cummings School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
Health Sciences Centre, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
Co-first author.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
Full-Text   |   PDF [334 KB, uploaded 14 November 2017]   |  


The flipped classroom model is increasingly being adopted in healthcare education, despite the fact that recent systematic reviews in the nursing and medical education literature suggest that this method of instructional design is not inherently better or worse than the traditional classroom. In this study, we used a sequential, explanatory mixed methods design to assess the impact of flipping the hepatology classroom for preclinical medical students. Compared to students in the traditional classroom, students in the flipped classroom had significantly lower mean (SD) ratings of their learning experiences (3.48 (1.10) vs. 4.50 (0.72), p < 0.001, d = 1.10), but better performance on the hepatology content of the end-of-course examination (78.0% (11.7%) vs. 74.2 (15.1%), respectively, p < 0.01, d = 0.3). Based upon our qualitative data analyses, we propose that the flipped classroom induced a change in the learning process of students by requiring increased preparation for classroom learning and promoting greater learner autonomy, which resulted in better retention of learned material, but reduced enjoyment of the learning experience. This dissonance in outcomes is captured in the words of one flipped classroom student: “…I hated it while I was learning it, but boy did I remember it…”. Based upon our dissonant outcomes and the inconsistent findings in the literature, we feel that there is still equipoise regarding the effectiveness of the flipped classroom, and further studies are needed to describe ways of making the flipped classroom a more effective (±more enjoyable) learning experience. View Full-Text
Keywords: flipped classroom; undergraduate medical education; desirable difficulty flipped classroom; undergraduate medical education; desirable difficulty

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Burak, K.W.; Raman, M.; Paget, M.; Busche, K.; Coderre, S.; McLaughlin, K. A Mixed Methods Study on the Effect of Flipping the Undergraduate Medical Classroom. Educ. Sci. 2017, 7, 83.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Educ. Sci. EISSN 2227-7102 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top