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Mobile Technology as an Alternative Teaching Strategy Amidst COVID-19 Hiatus: Exploring Pedagogical Possibilities and Implications for Teacher Development

Institute of Education, University College London, London WC1H 0AL, UK
Institute for Educational Development, The Aga Khan University (AKU-IED), Karachi 74800, Pakistan
Smart Learning Institute, Beijing Normal University (SLI-BNU), Beijing 100875, China
Institute for Educational Development, The Aga Khan University (AKU-IED), Dar es Salaam 125, Tanzania
Department of Educational Studies, The Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 385;
Received: 1 February 2023 / Revised: 7 March 2023 / Accepted: 10 April 2023 / Published: 12 April 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education Technology and Literacies: State of the Art)


Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the education sector worldwide had to adapt rapidly from in-person to virtual modes of teaching and learning to mitigate the spread of the virus. In a short period of time, teachers were forced to find new and innovative ways of delivering education to their students to ensure the continuation of education. In this context, this paper investigates how teachers in Pakistan leveraged mobile technology as an alternative teaching strategy to provide access to and to ensure the continuation of education. Through in-depth interviews with 13 selected teachers, this study explores the potential of mobile technology to offer alternative teaching and learning arenas. The findings underscore the importance of embracing new pedagogical possibilities offered by mobile technology and the significance of effective teacher professional development in the post-pandemic era. This study provides valuable insights into the utilization of mobile technology in the education sector, even in the most challenging circumstances, and highlights the potential for mobile learning to contribute to education reform.

1. Introduction

The deadly and infectious coronavirus 2019 disease (known as COVID-19) brought the world to a standstill, causing stagnancy in all areas of life, including education [1,2]. Following the outbreak of COVID-19, Pakistan and many other countries urgently closed all educational institutes and suspended classes to prevent the spread of the disease. This massive and unexpected closure of educational institutes across the globe resulted in a stressful event for most of the stakeholders and became a top priority for institutions to quickly transition their traditional classes to online or virtual modes through cloud campuses, the media, or other digital learning environments [3]. These rapid moves led to the testing and adoption of remote and technology-driven environments on an unprecedented scale and, as a result, opened several new avenues for teaching, such as mobile teaching (or the same in this study as teaching via mobile technology) [4,5,6].
Teachers hailing from developed nations may find it more expedient to quickly initiate and execute remote teaching modalities during unprecedented times to impart virtual learning experiences. On the other hand, teachers in developing countries are confronted by unparalleled hurdles in this regard, as the unforeseen shift demands them to acclimate to novel teaching circumstances that differ markedly from traditional classroom-based instructional techniques. One such challenge that surrounds teachers, is when they attempt to teach remotely on digital platforms. Teachers were, particularly, confronted with the need to make a complex set of pedagogical decisions on the fly, while simultaneously grappling with a host of technological issues. This entails the rapid adaptation, consolidation, and/or integration of digital systems to offer alternative learning arenas, as well as a constant need to remain attuned to the unique needs and preferences of learners [7]. Such challenges underscore the importance of pedagogical agility, technological proficiency, and adaptive expertise in contemporary educational contexts. This dynamic interplay between pedagogical decision-making and technology integration represents a critical area for further research and investigation, as teachers continue to navigate the complex and rapidly evolving terrain of digital and smart education [8,9].
In Pakistan, where the digital divide is still a major challenge, the pandemic has posed unique challenges for teachers, who have had to find ways of providing remote and online education to their students in a context where access to technology and connectivity is limited. Despite these limitations, the collective reactions from different actors in administrative positions, politicians, social media, and parents led the teachers to replace their conventional approaches and participate in ICT didactic innovations (especially mobile technology) to keep education running. In this context, the need for research that explores teachers’ use of innovative teaching strategies and the use of (mobile) technology in education during uncertain times has become more pressing than ever. This study aims to fill this gap by shedding light on the pedagogical possibilities of mobile technology in the context of crisis and identify the implications for teacher development in the post-pandemic era. The current study is guided by the following research question:
Research Question: How do teachers in Pakistan leverage mobile technology to provide access to education during the COVID-19 pandemic, and what are its implications for pedagogy and teacher development?
This study carries substantial significance as it will provide valuable insights for education authorities to thoroughly explore the experiences of teachers who utilize mobile technology to attain their teaching objectives under novel and unconventional teaching circumstances. The findings of this study can help generate critical discussions around the development of effective pedagogies, particularly in the mobile technology domain, that can be leveraged to enhance education delivery and quality both during times of normalcy and in the face of adversity. By shedding light on the experiences of teachers and their use of mobile technologies, this study can contribute to the advancement of innovative teaching practices that can help address the evolving needs of students and the educational landscape.

2. Mobile Learning and Mobile Teaching: Unavoidable Switches

Mobile learning and mobile teaching are two distinct but interrelated concepts that are influenced by the expectations and experiences of both learners and teachers. While mobile learning refers to the use of mobile devices to facilitate learning at any time and place [10,11], mobile teaching involves the use of mobile technology to support teaching and instruction [12]. In both cases, the use of mobile technology is shaped by the expectations and experiences of the users. Learners and teachers who are accustomed to using mobile devices in their everyday lives are likely to approach mobile learning and mobile teaching in a similar manner [13]. They may expect to be able to access learning materials and resources on their mobile devices and may prefer to use mobile technology to communicate with their peers and instructors.
This discourse points to the emergence of a new teaching and learning modality to extend education beyond the physical confines of the classroom, allowing teachers to create new kinds of learning experiences and community learning ecosystems beyond the fixed time periods of the school day. It is important to note that the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about significant changes to the use of mobile technology for learning and teaching. As schools and universities shifted to remote or hybrid learning models, the reliance on mobile technology has increased [14,15]. The pandemic has accelerated the adoption of mobile learning and teaching and has forced teachers to reconsider traditional teaching methods [16]. Therefore, while the expectations and experiences of learners and teachers are important factors in shaping the use of mobile technology in education, the COVID-19 pandemic has also played a significant role in changing the landscape of mobile learning and mobile teaching [13].
Existing studies in the broader literature have recognized the place and value of mobile technology in education settings; however, there is limited research on whether mobile technologies build resilience into teachers’ pedagogy and provide teachers with alternative pedagogical possibilities during the exceptional circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic [17]. The evidence [18,19] shows that most teachers promptly tap into mobile technology, serving as a potential substitute for face-to-face teaching amidst socially distanced, unpredictable, and emotionally charged circumstances.
The rapid migration to mobile technology skyrocketed because of its potential and affordances that allow for a somewhat reasonable level of instructional continuity to be quickly maintained—anytime, anywhere—to better fit the education narrative in the face of the pandemic and as a digital response to fight against COVID-19. Nevertheless, many questions arise about how teachers could capitalize on mobile technology and can produce engaging lessons.
The COVID-19 crisis, however, opened a state of exception that enabled teachers to utilize their mobile devices for continuing education delivery as quickly as possible, without the benefits of the usual planning time, appropriate resources, and pedagogical structure needed to enrich this way of education [20,21]. Such evidence evoked fear that mobile-mediated education amidst COVID-19 may offer quick fixes [22] but not be as effective as face-to-face education [23]. Arguably, the evolution in teaching modalities created by COVID-19 has had a high impact on the way teachers approach teaching and the creation of such modalities requires teachers to have modern (digital) pedagogical capabilities to meaningfully facilitate teaching and learning [24]. Given this, the “on the fly” circumstances present a nice window to look at ways teachers deal with the need to be flexible and resilient. For this reason, teachers’ utilization of mobile learning technologies to maintain education amidst COVID-19 has been chosen as the focus of this paper.

3. Theoretical Framework

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, various educational institutes opted to cancel all face-to-face classes and immediately started delivering education through remote teaching arrangements [25]. As a result, there has been a significant shift towards utilizing digital technology in education. While some may argue that this was merely a temporary “hiatus”—a temporary pause in traditional teaching methods—rather than a fundamental change, others believe that this shift represents a fundamental change in the way we approach education. For instance, [26] suggest that the pandemic has accelerated existing trends towards digitalization in education, resulting in a “digital transformation” that is likely to persist even after the pandemic. Similarly, [27] argues that the pandemic has highlighted the limitations of traditional in-person teaching methods and has catalyzed a shift towards more personalized and flexible approaches to education.
On the other hand, some scholars have cautioned against overestimating the long-term impact of the pandemic on education. For instance, [28] argue that while remote learning may have been a necessity during the pandemic, it is not a substitute for in-person instruction and may have negative consequences for student learning outcomes. Overall, the question of whether the COVID-19 pandemic represents a temporary hiatus or a fundamental change in education remains a subject of debate; however, it is clear that the pandemic has highlighted the importance of digital technology in education and has forced teachers to adapt to new teaching methods and approaches.
The pandemic has also highlighted the importance of teacher professional development and support [29,30,31,32,33,34], as many teachers were unprepared for the sudden shift to remote teaching [35]. This has led to increased demand for training and support for teachers to develop their digital literacy and adapt their teaching methods to the digital environment. In particular, the crisis event that resulted in a transition to remote and mobile teaching options has been challenging for novice teachers because it requires substantial changes in pedagogical strategies, content, and context to be successful [36,37]. In consequence, this unsettledness makes the teachers more hesitant to uptake or deploy mobile technology for crisis-response teaching. We construe those teachers working within or outside school inevitably confront crises; they must be effectively trained and ready to respond by re-establishing the pre-crisis capacity of teaching and pedagogical adaptations through comprehensive school crisis and prevention support [38,39].
In view of this, the dynamic model of educational effectiveness (DMEE) [40,41] shares a focus on the complexity of teaching effectiveness that may be affected by a variety of interrelated factors (including student, teacher, school context, and educational policies). Among these factors, teachers’ work is pivotal in that it might affirm the effectiveness of the educational process. For the reason that if the teacher is not effective, then it would be difficult to achieve student outcomes and excellence. Thus, educational excellence for students is deeply nurtured by quality teachers. The authors of [42,43] rightly pointed out that central to effective teaching is what teachers need to know and being able to use technology in education. Similarly, the case study by the authors of [44] reported that the use of inappropriate teaching strategies results in “depersonalized” learning and insufficient interaction among students and teachers.
It is, therefore, important to consider a variety of factors—social, cultural, and technical—that could be in the shape of resources, administrative support, mobile pedagogies, and technical skills for a successful transition to remote and digital learning environments. These things considered, the massive and sudden move to remote and mobile operations sparked by COVID-19 invites us to consider crisis-response teaching as an opportunity for transformational change and academic innovation. For this, it is necessary to develop teachers’ multidimensional competencies [45] required for crisis teaching and to prepare them for successful navigation in unexpected events.

4. Method

4.1. Design

The present study employed an interpretivist paradigm [46,47,48,49] to understand how schoolteachers (in Sindh, Pakistan) experience, construct, and what meanings are attributed to their mobile teaching experiences during the COVID-19 outbreak. Under the umbrella of the interpretivist paradigm, a qualitative exploratory design was used to achieve an in-depth understanding of how teachers interpret experiences, responded to, and portray their shared voices on mobile teaching challenges posed by the COVID-19 situation. This design enabled us to gain greater insight and in-depth exploration of the phenomenon from the participants’ perspectives.

4.2. Participant Recruitment

Initially, 20 teachers were purposely selected to share insights and experiences of mobile-based teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, 7 teachers withdrew, and 13 agreed to participate in the study. All the teachers were teaching at public and private schools in the Sindh province of Pakistan with no or very little experience in teaching through mobile technology. Before the commencement of the study, all the participants were informed of the research objectives, methods, and possible risks experienced by the participants. In addition, the confidentiality of participants was ensured by using pseudonyms. Data were collected and analyzed with respect to participants’ privacy, dignity, and cultural sensitivity. Any potential risks or harm to participants were identified and minimized. Overall, the study was conducted in accordance with ethical guidelines for qualitative research. Table 1 shows the participants’ demographic information.

4.3. Data Collection

The data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with the participants. Considering the lockdowns and safety of the participants and researchers, the interviews were conducted online via video conferencing facilities such as WhatsApp, Zoom, and Google Meet. These interviews were based on open-ended questions, allowing participants to share their experiences with mobile technology, the challenges they faced, and what is “needed” to make teaching through mobile technology successful. The questions were created by the authors and were designed to elicit detailed and specific responses from the participants. In general, the data were classified into four themed findings, namely, (1) crisis-response teaching via mobile technology, (2) teacher capacity and pedagogical adaptation to mobile technology, (3) critical factor for mobile teaching with the lens of the DMEE, and (4) organizational and national policy support for facilitating mobile teaching strategies. The interview responses were recorded with the participants’ consent which lasted for approximately 30–40 min each.

4.4. Data Analysis

The collected data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic content analysis [50]. As a flexible qualitative analysis tool, NVivo-version 12 was used to produce rich and detailed data reports. In doing so, open coding was made before identifying and reviewing key themes. Each theme was examined to gain an in-depth understanding of the participants’ experiences with mobile teaching.

4.5. Researchers’ Bias, Validity, and Trustworthiness

In conducting this qualitative study, we took several measures to ensure the credibility and integrity of this study’s findings. To address the issue of researcher bias, we acknowledged our own experiences and beliefs that might have influenced the research question or analysis. We also used a range of data collection techniques to provide multiple perspectives on the research topic. We employed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with teachers and document analysis of educational materials used during the transition to mobile teaching. By using these methods, we gained insights into various perspectives on the use of mobile technology for teaching, which helped us to overcome our own biases and to triangulate the data. To ensure the validity of our study, we used purposive sampling techniques to select participants who had relevant experiences and knowledge about the topic. We also employed member checking, where participants reviewed the data collected to ensure its accuracy, and peer debriefing, where a colleague reviewed the study’s findings and conclusions to ensure that the analysis was consistent with the data collected. To ensure trustworthiness, we adhered to ethical guidelines and principles of research, including obtaining informed consent from the participants, ensuring confidentiality and anonymity, and providing detailed descriptions of the research process and analysis methods. This helped to build trust between the researcher and the participants and ensured that our study’s findings were reliable and accurate.

5. Findings and Discussion

The following themes have emerged in this study which are summarized with relevant quotes from the participants.

5.1. Crisis-Response Teaching via Mobile Technology

Considering the COVID-19 situation, mobile or remote teaching arrangements were the only option that worked in the crisis despite having pros and cons. Among various necessities, teachers delved into these alternative teaching arenas to respond to broken education via the available (mobile) technology and the internet at home or school. This evidence is seen from the interview data with Meh, Yar, Ahm, and Nur, as shown in Table 2.
To make learning available to primary pupils in crises situations, most teachers find teaching through smartphones a good and easy option, as teachers carry their smartphones everywhere and remain more skilled in its use. Some teachers who already use mobile devices in their traditional classrooms are eager to teach through mobile technologies. Interestingly, these teachers are motivated by the students who seem to be technology-friendly in this 21st century. Data from a variety of studies also support the idea that mobile devices have the potential to support teaching and learning [51,52]. The authors of [53] assert that mobile devices are intriguing from an educational perspective since they allow several communication channels on one device, are less expensive, have a similar capability to desktops or laptops, and offer wireless access to educational resources. In addition, they can provide teachers with more innovative ways to deliver instructions from anywhere.
In the COVID-19 situation, teaching through mobile technologies stands out for a variety of reasons, including mobility, ubiquity, adaptability, interaction, collaboration, context awareness, and seamlessness [14,54,55,56]. Due to these distinctive features and affordances, mobile technology has become a viable educational continuity and recovery instrument. In short, mobile technologies could drastically lessen people’s reliance on permanent places and have the potential to completely transform how people work and learn.

5.2. Teacher Capacity and Pedagogical Adaptation to Mobile Technology

In our study, we found that teacher capacity and pedagogical adaptation to mobile technology is crucial. Teachers have undergone a range of mobile teaching experiences and adapted to new methods for facilitating educational access. Despite the urgent and often stressful circumstances, the teachers in our study displayed a high level of intrinsic motivation and a strong sense of responsibility to their students. For instance, Meh (interviewee) stated that “…it is my responsibility as a teacher to continue to explore and implement suitable teaching options to combat Coronavirus time”. Bux (interviewee), therefore, expresses that “…it is a new experience for me to manage mobile classes. It becomes interesting with some new patterns and adaptations that require students and myself to be better prepared to face the challenges of an ever-changing era”.
However, the sudden transition to mobile or remote teaching has also called for a redefinition of professional identity for many teachers, as they attempt to replicate traditional teaching practices without adequate training. Our findings revealed that teachers recognize the potential negative consequences of poor instruction delivered through mobile devices and are aware of the need to gain knowledge and expertise in technological skills to deliver quality education through mobile modes. As one of our interviewees expressed, “it is a critical consideration for alternative teaching and learning mechanisms such as mobile teaching that we must be trained to the best of institute capacity with the basic knowledge and skills to operate this service”.
Teachers have embraced mobile technology as the possible workable solution in the COVID-19 situation. Our study’s participants recognized that mobile technology is not necessarily the most effective solution but is currently the viable option for ensuring educational continuity in the midst of a pandemic. Thus, our findings highlight the critical importance of teacher capacity and pedagogical adaptation to mobile technology as well as the need for adequate training and support in the implementation of mobile teaching strategies.

5.3. Critical Factors for Mobile Teaching with the Lens of the DMEE

Mobile teaching is heavily reliant on several critical factors. One of the most important factors is the willingness, motivation, and commitment of teachers to make alternative teaching methods work. Our interviewee Rehm expressed that dedication and a strong desire to make alternative teaching methods work is crucial in ensuring the success of mobile teaching, especially during the global pandemic where health risks are a concern. Similarly, Mar (interviewee) emphasized the importance of intrinsic motivation and willingness, stating that even with technical knowledge, success may not be achieved without the drive to make it work.
Another crucial factor for successful mobile teaching is the pedagogical knowledge and technical competencies of teachers [45]. Our findings revealed that teachers’ TPACK knowledge and skills, coupled with the support received from management are critical for the success of remote teaching; however, in the Pakistani context, many teachers lack the necessary technological skills due to a lack of proper training or a negative attitude towards technology. In such cases, access to available resources and training programs is essential for improving the quality of alternative teaching and learning environments for students.
Moreover, the respondents in our study highlighted the importance of monetary support, up-to-date hardware and software, flexible planning time, instructional design support, and funding for the successful implementation and use of technological tools. Our findings indicate that these resources are essential to support the pedagogical and technical competencies of teachers, and thus, the success of mobile teaching. In conclusion, our study underscores the critical importance of the pedagogical and technical competencies of teachers, as well as the availability of monetary and other necessary resources, for the success of mobile teaching. By recognizing and addressing these factors, educators can better support alternative teaching and learning methods, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and other situations that require remote education.

5.4. Organizational and National Policy Support for Facilitating Mobile Teaching Strategies

The successful implementation of mobile teaching strategies requires strong organizational and national policy support. In this study, participants emphasized the need for institutional support in terms of policy development, infrastructure, and resource allocation. The lack of clear policies and guidelines from the institutions and government led to confusion and uncertainty in the early stages of the pandemic. Participants identified the need for clear guidelines on the use of technology in education and the establishment of support structures such as technical teams to assist teachers in navigating the complexities of mobile teaching. Furthermore, participants suggested that institutions should prioritize investments in mobile technology infrastructure, including internet access and hardware such as laptops and tablets. This would allow for seamless integration of mobile teaching into the curriculum and ensure that all students have access to the necessary tools to participate in online learning. The participants also highlighted the need for financial support from the government to facilitate the implementation of mobile teaching strategies, particularly in low-income communities where access to technology is limited. This support could be in the form of subsidies for internet access or the provision of devices to students who cannot afford them. In conclusion, the successful implementation of mobile teaching strategies requires strong organizational and national policy support, including the development of clear policies and guidelines, investment in infrastructure and resources, and financial support for disadvantaged communities.

6. Proposed Model for Mobile Teaching with the Lens of the DMEE

Based on the findings of the study and collected literature, we are proposing a model for mobile teaching (see Figure 1) underpinned by the dynamic model of educational effectiveness (DMEE). The model represents a powerful and inclusive theoretical framework for the design and implementation of educational experiences that are intended to have a significant and lasting impact on learners. Through its integrated approach, the DMEE provides educators with a holistic and versatile model for the development of pedagogically sound and engaging learning experiences that can effectively meet the diverse needs and preferences of learners. The model’s comprehensive nature (drawing upon a range of theories, empirical findings, and practical insights) underscores its potential as a valuable tool for educators seeking to optimize the quality and impact of their educational interventions. Thus, the DMEE has emerged as a leading theoretical framework in the field of educational effectiveness and continues to inform and shape research and practice in this area.
In the context of mobile teaching, the framework offers a roadmap for designing mobile-mediated educational programs that are both effective and engaging for students. The first step in this process is to clearly define the learning objectives and desired outcomes for students. This ensures that every aspect of the mobile teaching program is aligned with these goals, providing students with a clear sense of purpose and direction. Next, teachers must choose appropriate instructional strategies that leverage the unique features of mobile technology. This allows for truly immersive and engaging learning experiences, as students can interact with content in new and meaningful ways. Engaging activities that are relevant and designed to promote deep learning are also critical to the success of a mobile teaching program. These activities help to keep students motivated and engaged, ensuring that they are getting the most out of their mobile education journey.
The framework also stresses the importance of ongoing assessment, as educators must continuously evaluate the effectiveness of the mobile teaching program and make data-driven decisions to optimize the design. This helps to ensure that students are getting the best possible educational experience. Finally, the mobile teaching program must be launched with confidence, knowing that it has been designed using the DMEE framework and is accessible and usable on a variety of devices and platforms. By taking a student-centric approach and following the DMEE framework, educators can create mobile teaching programs that are truly effective, engaging, and meaningful for learners of all ages and backgrounds.

7. Conclusions and Implications

In conclusion, our study highlights the urgent need to redefine the professional identity of teachers in the wake of the sudden and largely unprepared transition to remote teaching, particularly through mobile technology. Our findings suggest that the success of mobile teaching is contingent upon multidimensional factors, including professional development opportunities, continuous support from government and regulatory bodies, and teachers’ motivation and positive attitude towards alternative teaching mechanisms. Moreover, we argue that teachers must possess mobile-enabled teaching competencies and skills to perform a multi-dimensional role while teaching remotely. Thus, a redefined competency-based professional development program is essential to prepare teachers in areas related to instructional strategies, facilitation, and delivery; sustaining motivation and engagement [57]; and managing technology and learning resources. Overall, our study emphasizes the critical role of teacher professional development programs in equipping teachers with the necessary knowledge, tools, and resilience to effectively deal with COVID-19 and any uncertain education situation.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, A.G.Q.; methodology, A.G.Q.; validation, A.G.Q., formal analysis, A.G.Q. and M.Y.M.; investigation, A.G.Q. and F.J.M.; resources, A.G.Q., M.Y.M., F.J.M. and M.V.; data curation, A.G.Q. and M.Y.M.; writing—original draft preparation, A.G.Q.; writing—review and editing, A.G.Q.; visualization, M.Y.M.; supervision, F.J.M.; project administration, F.J.M. and M.V.; funding acquisition, A.G.Q. and M.V. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was funded by AKU’s University Research Council, grant number [213017]. And The APC was funded by the researchers and IOAP.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Ethics Review Committee for Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts (ERC-SSHA) (protocol code 042-ERC-SSHA-2021 and 18 October 2021).

Informed Consent Statement

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Data Availability Statement

Due to the fact that human subjects are involved, supporting data cannot be made openly accessible. Nevertheless, most of the data supporting underlying findings are included in the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. A proposed model of Mobile Teaching with the Lens of the DMEE.
Figure 1. A proposed model of Mobile Teaching with the Lens of the DMEE.
Education 13 00385 g001
Table 1. Participants’ demographic information.
Table 1. Participants’ demographic information.
Table 2. Quotes from Participants on Crisis-Response Teaching via Mobile Technology.
Table 2. Quotes from Participants on Crisis-Response Teaching via Mobile Technology.
Meh“I use my mobile phone with internet access, which I always carry everywhere, to send learning material to my students”
Yar“The use of mobile devices for learning and development is truly a wise choice. As a teacher, you should consider the fact that there are a rising number of mobile device owners”
Ahm“Technology, especially mobile phones, can surely be one of the solutions to provide and maintain education access to students in crises and emergency situations”
Nur“Whether mobile technology is effective or not: it is the only workable solution in COVID-19 situation”
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Qazi, A.G.; Mustafa, M.Y.; Mtenzi, F.J.; Valcke, M. Mobile Technology as an Alternative Teaching Strategy Amidst COVID-19 Hiatus: Exploring Pedagogical Possibilities and Implications for Teacher Development. Educ. Sci. 2023, 13, 385.

AMA Style

Qazi AG, Mustafa MY, Mtenzi FJ, Valcke M. Mobile Technology as an Alternative Teaching Strategy Amidst COVID-19 Hiatus: Exploring Pedagogical Possibilities and Implications for Teacher Development. Education Sciences. 2023; 13(4):385.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qazi, Ali Gohar, Muhammad Yasir Mustafa, Fredrick Japhet Mtenzi, and Martin Valcke. 2023. "Mobile Technology as an Alternative Teaching Strategy Amidst COVID-19 Hiatus: Exploring Pedagogical Possibilities and Implications for Teacher Development" Education Sciences 13, no. 4: 385.

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