Single-Case Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of Intellectual Development: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
1.1. Challenges with Writing Skills for Students with Disorders of ID
1.2. Previous Reviews of Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of ID
1.3. The Present Study
- What characterizes writing interventions using SCEDs that meet the WWC standards  for students with disorders of ID?
- What are the effects of writing interventions on the dependent writing variables within each study, and what is the magnitude of change across the participants?
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Inclusion Criteria
- Reported on a minimum of three students  with identified disorders of ID based on standardized tests (i.e., IQ ≤ 69 +/− SD), independent of other conditions (e.g., Down syndrome [DS] or ASD). If a mixed sample of students with and without disorders of ID was recruited in the study, only the individual data for students with disorders of ID were included in the review.
- Students aged 4–19 years.
- Used a core single-case experimental design (i.e., treatment reversal/withdrawal, changing criterion, multiple baseline design (MBD), or multiple probe design (MPD], and alternating treatment).
- Reported one or more elements of writing instruction targeting encoding and/or linguistic production using handwriting, keyboarding, signs, movable letters, or alternative pencils (e.g., alphabet eye gaze frames). Studies that used matching instructions alone were excluded.
- Met WWC design standards with or without reservation .
- Reported the results of the interventions on writing outcomes (encoding and/or linguistic production) with visual and/or statistical analysis, or it was possible to retrieve the data from the corresponding author.
- Published in English.
- To be included in the meta-analysis, studies also had to report relevant immediate (i.e., baseline and intervention phases) outcome data in raw scores, a format suitable for the required dependent writing variables in a multiple probe/baseline design across participants, or a treatment reversal design .
2.2. Search Strategy
- Disorders of ID: cognitive, development, disability, impairment, intellectual, learning, mental, disorder.
- Writing: dictation, encoding, handwriting, orthographic, print, spelling, sentence combination, typing, writing.
- Participants: adolescent, child, pupil, student.
- Method: alternating treatment design, changing criterion design, comparative design, concurrent schedule design, experimental single-case, multiple baseline design, multi-element baseline design, multiple probe design, multiple schedule design, replicated single-case, simultaneous treatment design, time-series design.
2.3. Inter-Assessor Agreement
2.4. The Screening Process
2.5. Reviewing against WWC Standards
2.6. Characteristics and Results of the Included Studies
2.7. Calculation of BC-SMD
2.8. Meta-Analysis Procedures
3.1. Study Characteristics
3.1.1. Study Year and Location
3.2. Description of the Writing Interventions
3.2.1. Description of the Independent Writing Variables
3.2.2. Description of the Duration, Interventionist, and Organization
3.3. Immediate Results of the Writing Interventions
3.3.1. Effects of the Interventions on the Number of Words and Sentences
3.3.2. Effects of the Interventions on Writing Quality
3.4. Maintenance and Generalization Results of Writing Interventions
4.1. Students with Disorders of ID Can Benefit from Writing Interventions
4.2. Immediate Effects of the Writing Interventions on Linguistic Production
4.3. Maintenance Effect and Generalization Effect of the Writing Interventions
4.4. Limitations and Further Research
4.5. Implications for Practice
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Authors||Dependent Variables 1 Measured with|
|BC-SMD||SE||BC-SMD ^||SE ^|
|Number of words spelled correctly|
|Stewart and Singh ||List A words spelled correctly||0.24||0.38||0.85||0.39|
|List B words spelled correctly||1.46||0.40|
|Number of words and sentences|
|Brady ||Number of words written||2.36||0.75||3.24||0.99|
|Number of sentences written||4.12||1.23|
|Gurney ||Number of sentences written||2.14||0.69|
|* Pennington et al. ||Percentage of word selection||0.72||0.60|
|** Rodgers ||Number of words written||0.50||0.44||0.68||0.46|
|Number of writing sequences||0.85||0.47|
|Qualityof paragraphs and story writing|
|Brady ||Number of holistic writing quality||2.63||1.37||4.14||1.80|
|Number of transition words||5.64||2.22|
|*** Bülbül and Özmen ||Number of points of narrative elements||6.28||3.38||6.37||2.42|
|Number of points of narrative quality||6.46||1.45|
|*** Guzel-Özmen ||Number of text structure elements||5.07||1.71|
|Konrad et al. ||Quality points of expository paragraphs||0.61||0.30||2.74||0.76|
|Quality points of IEP paragraphs writing||3.18||0.91|
|Quality points of IEP goal paragraphs||4.44||1.07|
|**** Park et al. ||Percent of quality points||0.78||0.68|
|Pennington and Koehler ||Number of story elements in narrative writing||1.05||0.62|
|Rodgers ||Score of paragraph text writing rubric||1.31||0.86|
|Rousseau et al. ||Number of adjectives per T-unit||1.18||0.27|
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Bakken, R.K.; Næss, K.-A.B.; Garrels, V.; Hagen, Å.M. Single-Case Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of Intellectual Development: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 687. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12100687
Bakken RK, Næss K-AB, Garrels V, Hagen ÅM. Single-Case Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of Intellectual Development: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Education Sciences. 2022; 12(10):687. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12100687Chicago/Turabian Style
Bakken, Randi Karine, Kari-Anne Bottegaard Næss, Veerle Garrels, and Åste Mjelve Hagen. 2022. "Single-Case Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of Intellectual Development: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Education Sciences 12, no. 10: 687. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12100687