Fashion Design Education and Sustainability: Towards an Equilibrium between Craftsmanship and Artistic and Business Skills?
1.1. The Complex Challenges of Sustainability in the Fashion Sector
1.2. The New Roles of Fashion Designers
1.3. The Need for Change in Fashion Design Education
2. The Importance of Sustainability in Fashion Education: Literature Review
2.1. Fashion Designers as Artists, Craftspeople, and Entrepreneurs or Employees in the Fashion Industry
2.2. Value-Based Learning
2.3. The Inclusion of Sustainability-Related Themes in Fashion Design Education
2.4. Limitations and Challenges of Sustainable Fashion Education
Design educators should be guardians of possibility and guardians of the possibility of possibility (…) Too often design, including fashion design, is reduced to the creation of new products within the existing world, which we are expected to accept as is (…) Absolutely, we must learn from the past, but we must always move forward (…).
A large majority of design and applied art institutions, in fact, focus on the old concept of product-centred education, feeding an enduring demand in prospective students, who are usually fascinated by fashion for its media and social impact, driven by individualism and not pragmatically informed by the professional context of designing and developing real products in a dramatically changing world.
3. Research Design and Methodology
3.1. Identification of Post-Secondary Schools Offering Fashion Majors in Poland
3.3. Main Themes and Dimensions of the Analysis
4. Results: Sustainability in the Education of Future Fashion Designers in Poland
4.1. Sustainability Education as a Part of the Artistic Dimension of Fashion Education
4.1.1. Creative Reuse of Textiles and Other Materials
4.1.2. Socially Engaged Fashion
4.1.3. Rethinking the Philosophy of Fashion, Preparing Statements and Manifestos on Sustainable Fashion
4.1.4. Cultural Heritage as Fashion Inspiration
4.1.5. Sustainability as a Leitmotif of Diploma Collections
4.2. Educating for Sustainability as Part of the Craft and Practical Skills Dimension of Fashion Education
4.2.1. Making Fashion Students Aware of Practical Sustainability Challenges and Possible Solutions
4.2.2. Sustainable Selection and Use of Textiles, Minimising Textile Waste
4.2.3. Enhancing the Quality of Garment and Apparel Craftsmanship
4.2.4. Awareness of Ethical Challenges Involved in Fashion Production
4.2.5. Awareness of Special Needs of Particular Social and Age Groups
4.2.6. Making Use of Local Heritage and Production Traditions
4.2.7. Designers’ Potential to Impact Consumer Awareness and Choices
4.3. Educating for Sustainability as an Element of Business and Entrepreneurship Education
4.3.1. CSR in Fashion
4.3.2. Creating and Managing Sustainable Fashion Brands
- Elaborating the development strategy of a fashion brand; developing marketing communication for the brand and its values, ideas, products, and their features (how to arouse customers’ interest by selling them not only products but also the ideas behind them) and deciding on the desired target group—discerning their needs, devising ways of reaching them, and developing the skills and action needed to establish relations with potential clients (e.g., VIAMODA offered a series of lectures on marketing communication in fashion, with themes such as ‘Responsible fashion and responsibly on fashion—how to create communication content for fashion products in line with the sustainable fashion paradigm?’ ;
- CSAFD published an article in its journal, Tuba, on the importance of marketing communication and the most efficient allocation of spending on it, stressing the need to inform potential customers about the product rather than, for example, investing a lot of money and effort in costly shows, and the necessity of planned communication with foreseeable timing in order to stay in regular touch with potential buyers and customers, as well as a predictable, repeated rhythm of release of new collections .
- It was similarly stressed that designers’ responsibility for their own products and brands—also in terms of marketing communication—should always be implemented with empathy and respect for their clients and their situation (e.g., as a semester task at one of the interviewed schools, students were asked to analyse a recent advertising campaign by the Polish brand Medicine, which during the pandemic decided to run a controversial campaign with the motto ‘Clothes can cure you’ and was severely criticised, even by fast fashion consumers, for what was perceived as insensitive and irresponsible communication; I2). Sending misleading marketing communications is another problem (e.g., brands that sell garments made from natural fabrics and promote themselves as ‘fully’ responsible, even though their products are made from conventional cotton or natural silk). Schools’ task is not only to make their students aware that such marketing signals are misleading but also to highlight their detrimental impact on consumers’ awareness of real sustainability issues (I2).
- Creation of CSR strategies and ways of communicating them to co-operators and clients (e.g., MSKPU’s emphasis on implementing a holistic CSR approach to design is evident in an original textbook on ethics in fashion published in Polish by the school’s director, Magdalena Płonka ; the school and its staff also participated in events on CSR and sustainability-related issues such as the Business Fashion Environment Summit in Warsaw in 2020). It was stressed that developing brands founded on values, in particular in the context of reoccurring crisis situations in the market, makes it easier for such brands to better cope with challenges arising in difficult economic times (I2).
- Giving students skills and ‘tools’—helping them to develop competencies to cooperate effectively within the organisational framework of a large fashion firm (e.g., cooperation with purchasing, marketing, or public relations (PR) departments).
- Making students aware that sometimes economic efficiency measures may be very much in line with sustainable fashion desiderata (for instance, designing clothes from fabric scraps or recycled textiles, minimising fabric waste) (I1, I2, I3).
5.1. The Presence of Sustainable Fashion-Related Themes in the Activities of Fashion Schools in Poland
5.2. Challenges in Sustainable Education of Fashion Designers in Poland
5.2.1. Lasting Impact on Attitudes and Practices
5.2.2. The Need for a Holistic Approach
5.2.3. Awareness and Attitudes of the General Public
5.2.4. Institutional Context and Possibilities for Cooperation with External Partners
5.2.5. Availability of Educational Materials
5.2.6. Availability of Sustainable Fabrics and Other Supplies
6. Perspectives and Closing Remarks
Conflicts of Interest
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|Main Theme||Specific Sustainability-Related Themes||Frequency of the Appearance of a Given Theme on Social Media and on the Web Pages of Schools|
|Fabrics and textiles as creative inspiration and as a challenge in terms of sustainable use||Deconstruction||5|
|Recycling and upcycling||5|
|Ecological textiles and technological solutions (e.g., new fabrics, production processes, and dyeing)||4|
|Appreciation for and potential use of local heritage, including textile and clothing production traditions||Using local heritage as a design inspiration (etnodizajn in Polish) ||4|
|Locally sourced fabrics and local production||3|
|Traditional fabrics and fashion accessories; traditional, environmentally friendly production processes (e.g., using only organic ingredients and supplies)||2|
|Shaping designers’ awareness of and sensitivity to current global problems||General sensitivity to global problems||4|
|Important problems and negative environmental and social impacts of the fashion industry, CSR, and ethics in fashion (people and animals)||3|
|Empathy for and design tailored to the needs of specific societal and age groups (e.g., the elderly, the disabled, and refugees)||1|
|Designers as sustainability activists||Broader sustainability issues as a design inspiration: ‘verbalisation’ of global and local ecological, social, economic, cultural, and spiritual issues through fashion (e.g., its form, materials used, slogans on clothing, etc.)||2|
|Designers’ role in educating the general public and shaping consumption patterns and consumer attitudes||3|
|Designers as informed participants in the fashion market (entrepreneurs, employees, employers, and creators of comprehensive concepts of fashion brands)||Challenges of developing and managing sustainable fashion businesses and brands||2|
|Activity Type (Dimension of Analysis)||Percentage of Schools That Inform the General Public of Engagement in a Given Type of Activity|
|Inclusion of sustainability in official statements or other public communications (articles, blogs, podcasts, and manifestos)||22|
|Sustainability as a visible and promoted leitmotif throughout the curriculum (present in the majority of courses or as a separate course)||22|
|Sustainability activities and events organised by the school, compulsory for students||22|
|Activities and events organised by the school (e.g., conferences, workshops, and professional meetings) as an additional/extracurricular (educational) offer aimed at students or students and other (external) fashion professionals||28|
|Publishing on sustainable fashion||28|
|Participation of the school (lecturers and students) in sustainable fashion events and initiatives organised by other institutions and organisations in Poland and abroad||50|
|Promoting sustainable fashion events and initiatives organised by other (external) bodies||50|
|Inclusion of sustainability in student designs (created as assignments for particular courses or as the theme of end-of-year or graduation collections)||56|
|Events organised by schools (e.g., workshops) for the general public (non-specialist participants not connected with the fashion market)||61|
|Cooperation with other stakeholders on sustainable fashion initiatives (other schools, firms in the fashion industry, museums, and non-governmental organisations)||61|
|School Type||Average Number of Sustainable Fashion Activity Types a Given School Type Is Involved in (out of 10 Identified by the Authors)|
|Specialist private fashion schools||8|
|Public art schools||4|
|Private schools with a broader artistic or general profile||2|
|Public universities with a broader profile||2|
|Average for all schools offering fashion majors||4|
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Murzyn-Kupisz, M.; Hołuj, D. Fashion Design Education and Sustainability: Towards an Equilibrium between Craftsmanship and Artistic and Business Skills? Educ. Sci. 2021, 11, 531. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090531
Murzyn-Kupisz M, Hołuj D. Fashion Design Education and Sustainability: Towards an Equilibrium between Craftsmanship and Artistic and Business Skills? Education Sciences. 2021; 11(9):531. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090531Chicago/Turabian Style
Murzyn-Kupisz, Monika, and Dominika Hołuj. 2021. "Fashion Design Education and Sustainability: Towards an Equilibrium between Craftsmanship and Artistic and Business Skills?" Education Sciences 11, no. 9: 531. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11090531