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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Reading and Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of Intellectual Development

1
Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Humanities, Sports and Educational Science, University of South-Eastern Norway, 3603 Kongsberg, Norway
2
Department of Special Needs Education, Faculty of Educational Science, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway
3
Graduate School of Education, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ian Hay
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100638
Received: 28 August 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
Students with disorders of intellectual development (ID) experience challenges in reading and writing, indicating the need for research-based interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of reading and writing interventions for students aged 4–19 with disorders of ID using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs (QEDs). We conducted electronic searches of relevant databases, backward and forward searches, and contacted experts in the field. Based on predefined criteria, nine studies were included in the systematic review, and seven were included in the meta-analysis. The reading interventions included decoding strategies, often combined with sight-word and supplemental instructions appropriate to the participants’ adaptive and cognitive skills. None of the studies aimed to increase writing skills. The overall mean effect size from the reading interventions for trained reading was large (g = 0.95, 95% CI = [0.51, 1.38]), for transfer reading small-to-moderate (g = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.78]) and for transfer writing small (g = 0.04, 95% CI = [−0.36, 0.44]). Students with disorders of ID can benefit from reading interventions combining decoding strategies and sight word reading. There is a need for RCT and QED studies investigating writing interventions for students with disorders of ID only. View Full-Text
Keywords: decoding; encoding; linguistic comprehension; linguistic production; special needs education decoding; encoding; linguistic comprehension; linguistic production; special needs education
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bakken, R.K.; Næss, K.-A.B.; Lemons, C.J.; Hjetland, H.N. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Reading and Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of Intellectual Development. Educ. Sci. 2021, 11, 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100638

AMA Style

Bakken RK, Næss K-AB, Lemons CJ, Hjetland HN. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Reading and Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of Intellectual Development. Education Sciences. 2021; 11(10):638. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100638

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bakken, Randi K., Kari-Anne B. Næss, Christopher J. Lemons, and Hanne N. Hjetland 2021. "A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Reading and Writing Interventions for Students with Disorders of Intellectual Development" Education Sciences 11, no. 10: 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100638

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