2. Battery Management System
2.1. Components and Topology
2.2. Software Architecture
- Energy management system with a user interface to control and examine battery systems’ performance in different system blocks.
- Battery pack performance and safety features.
- Resiliency among the system units in different accident scenarios.
- Advanced technologies that integrate batteries with conventional/non-conventional energy sources.
- Internet-of-things (IoT), which monitors and controls the energy management system.
2.3.3. Charging and Discharging Management
2.3.5. Components and Topology
2.5. Advantages of Using BMS
2.6. Drawbacks of Current BMS
3. BMS for Electric Transportation
3.3. Safety Aspects
- Overvoltage protection, a safety-related battery protection action.
- Accurate cell balancing, a function in the service of energy storage performance optimization.
- Chemical, electrical, and environmental hazards resulting from the operation of the BMS.
- Hazards resulting from the BMS operating within the battery system.
4. BMS for Large-Scale (Stationary) Energy Storage
4.1. BMS for Energy Storage System at a Substation
4.2. Risk Analysis
- Electric shock,
- Energy-related hazards fire,
- Heat-related hazards,
- Mechanical hazards,
- Chemical hazards.
- Protect the battery pack.
- Monitor the battery pack state.
- Measure battery cell and pack voltage.
- Measure battery cell and pack temperature.
- Measure battery pack current flow.
- Detect battery system leakage currents.
- Determine battery pack critical state.
- Manage operating modes.
- Receive information from the master control system (EMS, VMS…).
- Control the battery pack (dis)connection.
- Control the (dis)connection of the electric line of charge.
- Control the (dis)connection of the electric line of discharge.
- Inform master control system (EMS, VMS…) of battery pack (dis)connection status.
- Inform operator (HMI) of battery pack (dis)connection status.
- Optimize battery lifetime and energy availability.
- Monitor and control battery pack state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH).
- Manage cell balancing.
- Monitor and control non-safety battery support systems (BSS).
- Diagnostic—record battery life history log.
4.3. BMS Safety Recommendations
4.3.1. Recommendations for BMS Structure
- A non-flammable and solid barrier should be used between the two electrodes of batteries. The barrier must be made of insulation material, and electrodes should never come into contact with each other, even if an accident occurs. The barrier ensures the internal short circuit of batteries.
- Since battery is one of the inputs of BMS, flame retardants can be used in the electrolytes of batteries to prevent fire. The flashpoint of retardants must be higher than the electrolytes . However, measures should be taken to prevent battery performance and the electrochemical reactor from being hindered.
- In a battery, the combustion process includes a series of chemical reactions, which may cause a fire. To prevent this, fuel, oxidizer, and control unit must be chosen in such a way that the battery is not exposed to fire or any abnormality.
4.3.2. Recommendations for BMS Parameters
- Two well-known safety strategies are available in the lithium battery: current interrupt devices (CID) and positive temperature coefficient (PTC). The PTC protects batteries from an external short circuit. In abnormal cases, the PTC will heat itself, increase its resistance, and block the excess current. The CID prevents current flow in an abnormal condition, which may cause gas generation . It is highly recommended to implement these techniques for ensuring BMS reliability.
- A new solvent with a higher flash point than the existing solvent is recommended to use in batteries for fire resistance. As battery is a part of the BMS, the development of a new solvent will reduce the probability of a BMS fire.
4.3.3. Recommendations for BMS Integration
- All BMS units must be separated physically so that any abnormal issue within a BMS unit will not spread to other units.
- There should be more than a minimum number of nominally identical equipment or subsystems in the fault detection, control, and communication unit of the BMS. If one component or subsystem fails, the other can perform as a backup for a random failure; this is called “fail-safe philosophy.” The “fail-safe philosophy” includes safety vents, thermal fuses, and shutdown separators. Safety vents reduce the excess pressure inside the battery and prevent the rise of battery temperatures. Fallback protection, in particular, is exceptionally vital. If the primary protection system fails, then the secondary option will retain viability to prevent further problems.
- The battery cell must not be discharged below the minimum specified SOC.
4.3.4. Recommendations for BMS Installations
- The equipment rating and marking instruction must be strictly followed. Before the battery is put into operation, the normal case, worse case, and abuse case conditions of the battery must be evaluated.
- The way BMS control unit interacts with humans should be checked for each unit of the BMS. If any modification or replacement is needed for part of the unit, an extensive investigation must be carried out to evaluate whether the existing unit is compatible with the proposed change.
- Since the manufacturer and design fault is one of the most dominant causes for BMS failure, third-party verification is recommended to ensure safety.
- If an accident occurs with a battery bank, it is recommended to remove and replace all of the battery bank and to avoid using a battery that has had contact with fire, no matter how minimal the contact.
- Different types of batteries containing liquid electrolytes should not be combined for any extended use. If two male ends become connected to each other and they come into contact with flammable material, the impact will cause a fire explosion.
- Every battery must be charged by a specifically rated charger; otherwise, there is a possibility of overheating, which will damage the battery.
- It is recommended not to place that battery storage systems in high-temperature environments.
- Safety reviews should be conducted regularly for each BMS unit and be recorded in safety review reports to assess the changes and required modifications of the BMS unit.
5. Technical Standard Relevant to BMS Development: Standard Landscape
5.1. Transportation Electrification
5.2. Large Scale (Stationary) Application
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|Environmental Impact||Technical Efficiency Impact|
|Reduction in CO2 emissions:|
Reduction in CO2 emissions by a rate of 40% is possible when a battery is controlled by BMS to store off-peak clean electricity to serve peak demand.
|Real-Time State of Health Estimation:|
BMS enables precisely to predict the state of health (SOH) of a battery. It has positive impact on the safety and quality of the operation and performance.
|Greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits:|
The greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of batteries could be doubled using BMS and better use of clean off-peak electricity.
The target is less time-consuming, highly efficient, safer, and optimal solutions based on the design parameters.
|Metal depletion impacts|
BMS can be efficient in controlling the charging/discharging cycles and the operation frequency. It impacts the comprised materials that have high environmental and energy impacts.
BMS enables the SOC and SOH characterizations. SOC is modeled using one complete cycle of data, whereas SOH characterization is done based on the number of cycles of data.
|Temperature control impacts|
Two types of temperatures—electrochemical reaction temperature and battery environment temperature—can be controlled in the battery pack by BMS.
BMS enables an evaluation based on mathematical models to represent the complex features of a battery, such as power, capacity, temperature effects, and hysteresis effects.
|No.||Test Case||Description||End-of-Test Criteria|
|01||Idle or Stand-by||BMS is configured and the fault criteria are defined in the BMS. The subsequent functions are evaluated in idle mode.||The whole process is evaluated in steady state.|
|02||Current, voltage, temperature sensing||The sensors are supposed to checked and calibrated. Then, the full-range accuracy test is carried out by keeping the BMS at various conditions.||All conditions tested.|
|03||Dynamic discharge||The battery pack is totally discharged at ambient temperature by considering a real dynamic discharge scheme.||BMS stops discharging to avoid over-discharge.|
|04||Overvoltage during regenerative braking||The battery pack is fully discharged during experiencing a high regenerative current. The battery is discharged by considering a real dynamic discharge scheme.||The BMS interrupts the regenerative charging current.|
|05||Over-temperature during discharge||The battery pack is fully discharged at high temperature considering a real dynamic discharge scheme.||Battery pack reaches the maximum temperature and BMS stop the discharge.|
|06||Short circuit||Short circuits are placed at different locations in the battery pack:|
Event I: Internal or external short circuit adjacent to the cell’s tabs.
Event II: External short circuit through fuses or shunt resistor.
Event III: External short circuit through fuse and switch box.
|Short circuit current is zero.|
|07||CC-CV * charge||Conventional CC-CV charging with active/passive balancing.||End of charge.|
|08||Charge test at low temperature||A charge is enabled, and battery temperature is kept below the threshold of charging. The temperature starts to increase gradually due to the heating system.||When the pack temperature reaches over the limit, charging starts.|
|09||Diagnosis||Event I: Emulate SOC vs BMS estimated SOC during real dynamic discharge scheme.|
Event II: New events based on the BMS diagnosis features.
|End of charge or discharge.|
|10||Isolation monitor||Single isolation fault is introduced on the positive or negative terminal of the battery pack.||Isolation fault detected.|
|11||Global power consumption||Event I: Battery pack is fully discharged using a dynamic discharge scheme followed by CC-CV charge.|
Event II: Test on idle mode for a specific time span.
|BMS power consumption is evaluated at all conditions.|
|Potential Hazards Related to BMS Operation within the Battery System|
|No.||Standard/Guidelines||Scope and BMS Relevancy|
|01||ISO 6469-1:2019 Edition 3.0—Electrically propelled road vehicles—Safety specifications—Part 1: On-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS)||This standard specifies requirements for the on-board rechargeable energy storage system for electrically propelled vehicles such as hybrid-electric vehicles, battery electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. It mainly discusses climatic, electrical, functional, and simulated vehicle accident requirements. It also does not comprise motorcycles or other vehicles which are not designated as electric vehicles such as fork-lift trucks. The document does not consider the safety procedure for manufacturing, maintenance, and repair personnel.|
|02||ISO 6469-3:2018, Electrically propelled road vehicles—Safety specifications—Part 3: Electrical safety||This standard specifies electrical safety requirements of voltage class B electric circuit of electric propulsion systems and electrically propelled road vehicles. It specifies electrical safety requirements for protection of persons against electric shock and thermal incidents. However, it does not explain the safety measures for maintenance, manufacturing, and repair personnel.|
|03||ISO/TR 11955:2008, Hybrid-electric road vehicles—Guidelines for charge balance measurement||These guidelines explain the charge balance measurement procedure of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with batteries. The document does not consider any test for fully electric vehicles (EV). The “charge balance” term refers to the capacity of the battery.|
|04||SAE J2289_200807—Electric-Drive Battery Pack System: Functional Guidelines||These guidelines describe the electrical, physical, environmental, safety, and labeling requirements with product description, and shipment characteristics of the battery system for vehicles; these vehicles use a rechargeable battery to recapture the traction energy. They also explain the abnormal condition of the battery system.|
|05||SAE J2288_200806—Life Cycle Testing of Electric Vehicle Battery Modules||This standard describes a test method to determine the life cycle of EV battery modules. By using a set of nominal or baseline operating conditions, the expected degradation in electrical performance as a function of battery life is determined and possible failure mechanism is identified.|
|06||SAE J1798—Recommended Practice for Performance Rating of Electric Vehicle Battery Modules||This standard covers general test and verification methods to determine EV battery module performance. It provides the required performance in order to identify basic and minimum performance specification of EV battery modules.|
|07||UL 583, Standard for Electric-Battery-Powered Industrial Trucks||This standard addresses the requirements for electric-battery-powered industrial trucks, such as fork-lift trucks, tractors, platform-lift trucks, and other industrial application-specific vehicles in accordance with three most important risks: fire, explosion, and electric shock. However, there are also some other risks that are involved in this kind of equipment, such as corrosion, acid spill, and acid splash, are not discussed in the document.|
|08||ISO 18300:2016(E), Electrically propelled vehicles—Test specifications for lithium-ion battery systems combined with lead-acid battery or capacitor||This standard discusses the combination of lithium-ion battery with lead-acid battery or electric double-layer capacitor. The series combination of rechargeable chemical battery and double layer capacitor is an excellent solution for EV fast-charging station; however, the current and voltage spikes, during energy transfer between battery and electric double-layer capacitor, may reduce the system performance. In addition, the standard only addresses low voltage battery pack (e.g., 12V, 48V); design, test procedures, and safety requirement for high voltage battery are not covered in the document.|
|No.||Standard/Guidelines||Scope and BMS Relevancy|
|01||IEEE 1679.1—IEEE Guide for the Characterization and Evaluation of Lithium-Based Batteries in Stationary Applications||This standard provides guidance for an objective evaluation of lithium-based energy storage technologies by a potential user for any stationary application. It is to be used in conjunction with IEEE standard 1679. Section 5.8 (active management requirement) describes BMS as active management for the battery system and defines its function (cell balancing, disconnect devices, thermal fault handling) and provides a BMS block diagram.|
|02||UL 9540, Outline for Investigation for Safety for Energy Storage Systems and Equipment||This standard covers the energy storage system that only takes electric energy as input, stores the energy in any form (e.g., chemical, mechanical, thermal, electrochemical), and delivers the energy as electrical form. The standard also includes only the standalone mode and parallel mode operation of the energy storage system.|
|03||UL 2054 Household and Commercial|
|This standard only deals with the rechargeable batteries which produce electrical energy from chemical energy by chemical reaction. The standard is not applicable if the battery is used with other product as a combination. Moreover, the standard is not appropriate for the battery having a very high-capacity rating. The standard also does not cover the toxic risk resulting from the battery.|
|04||UL 1973 Standard for Batteries for Use in Stationary, Vehicle Auxiliary Power and Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications||This standard covers the battery system requirement of the stationary application (e.g., PV, wind turbine) and other electric vehicles. The document does not evaluate the performance and reliability of the devices with the battery system.|
|05||IEC 61508, Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-related Systems||This standard addresses the hazards during the failure of system’s safety function. The standard discusses the approaches to reduce the potential risks to an acceptable margin. BMS should regard these types of approaches to minimize risks.|
|06||IEC 61850: Communication networks and systems||In power substations, BMS should consider the standard for communication signal and networks as the monitoring-controlled data can be transferred to/from BMS through communication channels and protocols.|
|07||IEC 62619—Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes—Safety requirements for secondary lithium cells and batteries, for use in industrial applications||This standard specifies requirements and tests for the safe operation of secondary lithium cells and batteries used in industrial applications including stationary applications. It covers stationary application and motive application such as forklift truck, golf cart, auto guided vehicle, railway and marine, excluding road vehicle. In Section 8.2, the requirements for a BMS are discussed.|
|08||NAVSEA S9310—Technical Manual for Navy Lithium Battery Safety Program Responsibilities and Procedure||This document describes safety guidelines for the selection, design, testing, evaluation, use, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of lithium batteries devices used in navy application. In Section 4.4.4, a definition for BMS and information on the performance, cycle-count, age, and condition of the battery during charging and discharging provided.|
|Over-charge control of voltage (V)||IEC 62619|
|UL 1973, UL 9540|
|Over-charge control of current (A)||IEC 62619|
|UL 1973, UL 9540|
|Over-discharge||UL 1973, UL 9540|
|Overheating Control||IEC 62619|
|Cell Balancing||IEEE 1679.1|
|Cell Operating Range||IEC 62619|
|UL 1973, UL 9540|
|Temperature Range||IEEE 1679.1|
|Thermal Management||IEEE 1679.1|
|UL 1973, UL 9540|
|Heating and Cooling||IEEE 1679.1|
|Thermal Fault||IEEE 1679.1|
|Short Circuit||NAVSEA S9310|
|Functional Safety||IEC 62619|
|UL 1973, UL 9540|
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