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A Taxonomy in Robot-Assisted Training: Current Trends, Needs and Challenges

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
Institute of Automation, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications, NCSR Demokritos, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Greece
Affective and Cognitive Institute, Offenburg University, 77652 Offenburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Proceedings of the 11th PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments Conference, Corfu, Greece, 26–29 June 2018; pp. 208–213.
Technologies 2018, 6(4), 119;
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments (PETRA))
PDF [391 KB, uploaded 13 December 2018]


In this article, we present a taxonomy in Robot-Assisted Training; a growing body of research in Human–Robot Interaction which focuses on how robotic agents and devices can be used to enhance user’s performance during a cognitive or physical training task. Robot-Assisted Training systems have been successfully deployed to enhance the effects of a training session in various contexts, i.e., rehabilitation systems, educational environments, vocational settings, etc. The proposed taxonomy suggests a set of categories and parameters that can be used to characterize such systems, considering the current research trends and needs for the design, development and evaluation of Robot-Assisted Training systems. To this end, we review recent works and applications in Robot-Assisted Training systems, as well as related taxonomies in Human–Robot Interaction. The goal is to identify and discuss open challenges, highlighting the different aspects of a Robot-Assisted Training system, considering both robot perception and behavior control. View Full-Text
Keywords: robot-assisted training (RAT); human–robot interaction (HRI); taxonomy; robot perception and behavior robot-assisted training (RAT); human–robot interaction (HRI); taxonomy; robot perception and behavior

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Tsiakas, K.; Kyrarini, M.; Karkaletsis, V.; Makedon, F.; Korn, O. A Taxonomy in Robot-Assisted Training: Current Trends, Needs and Challenges. Technologies 2018, 6, 119.

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