The Rise of Artificial Intelligence under the Lens of Sustainability
2.1. Artificial Intelligence
- Artificial narrow intelligence (ANI): Machines are trained for a particular task and can make a decision only in one sphere. (e.g., Google search, passenger planes )
- Artificial general intelligence (AGI): AGI which are also known as strong AI,” “human-level AI,” and “true synthetic intelligence  are machines that has ability to reach and then pass the intelligence level of a human, meaning it has the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience. (e.g., autonomous cars)
- Mechanics: Minimal degree of learning or adaption (e.g., McDonald’s “Create Your Taste” touchscreen kiosks)
- Analytical: Learns and adapts systematically based on data (e.g., Toyota’s in-car intelligent systems replacing problem diagnostic tasks for technicians)
- Intuitive: Learns and adapts intuitively based on understanding (e.g., Associated Press’ robot reporters taking on the reporting task for minor league baseball games)
- Empathetic: Learn and adapt empathetically based on experience (e.g., Chatbots communicating with customers and learning from these experiences)
2.2. Sustainability Analysis
- The individual dimension covers individual freedom and agency (the ability to act in an environment), human dignity, and fulfillment. It includes individuals’ ability to thrive, exercise their rights, and develop freely.
- The social dimension covers relationships between individuals and groups. For example, it covers the structures of mutual trust and communication in a social system and the balance between conflicting interests.
- The economic dimension covers financial aspects and business value. It includes capital growth and liquidity, investment questions, and financial operations.
- The technical dimension covers the ability to maintain and evolve artificial systems (such as software) over time. It refers to maintenance and evolution, resilience, and the ease of system transitions.
- The environmental dimension covers the use and stewardship of natural resources. It includes questions ranging from immediate waste production and energy consumption to the balance of local ecosystems and climate change concerns.
2.3. Sustainable Development
- To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- To achieve universal primary education
- To promote gender equality and empower women
- To reduce child mortality
- To improve maternal health
- To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
- To ensure environmental sustainability
- To develop a global partnership for development
- End poverty in all its forms, everywhere
- End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
- Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all people at all ages
- Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
- Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
- Ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
- Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
- Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all
- Build a resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation
- Reduce inequality within and among countries
- Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable
- Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
- Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
- Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development
- Protect, restore, and promote the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and biodiversity loss
- Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels
- Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
3. AI under a Sustainability Analysis Perspective
3.1. Economic Dimension
3.2. Technical Dimension
3.3. Environmental Dimension
- Programmed autonomous vehicles could fully take advantage of the principles of eco-driving throughout a journey, reducing fuel consumption by as much as 20 percent and reducing greenhouse gas emissions to a similar extent.
- Autonomous vehicles could reduce traffic congestion by recommending alternative routes and shortest routes possible in urbanized areas and by sharing traffic information to other vehicles on the motorways, resulting in less fuel consumption.
- Autonomous vehicles could drive in accordance with imposed limits, resulting in smooth driving that would minimalize the necessity of the energy-intensive process of accelerating. This would ensure that the least amount of fuel is used.
- Finally, autonomous vehicles would reduce the distance between cars, would reduce fuel consumption due to reduction of aerodynamic resistance, and would reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
3.4. Individual Dimension
3.5. Social Dimension
- AI Application Domains: A more in-depth sustainability analysis should be performed for several application domains of AI whereby an analysis of the three orders of effect (life cycle, enabling, and structural) is included.
- Ethics and transparency of AI: An interdisciplinary analysis that considers the transparency and ethical aspects of AI should be performed in a joint effort by behavioral psychologists, philosophers of science, psychologists, and computer scientists.
- Responsibility & accountability for AI: A qualitative analysis should be conducted on how much citizens are willing to give up the freedom of choice and have AI take somewhat optimized decisions for them, how much operators are willing to pass on their responsibility to AI, and how much developers are willing to be accountable in case something fails, along with how to allow for and ensure transparency; and
- Perceptions of AI: A larger-scale empirical analysis should be carried out on individuals’ perceptions in diverse stakeholder roles toward having AI integrated in society on several levels of technological intervention, e.g., as small-scale personal assistants, as substitute teachers, nurses, and doctors, or as decision support systems for governments and legislation.
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Khakurel, J.; Penzenstadler, B.; Porras, J.; Knutas, A.; Zhang, W. The Rise of Artificial Intelligence under the Lens of Sustainability. Technologies 2018, 6, 100. https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6040100
Khakurel J, Penzenstadler B, Porras J, Knutas A, Zhang W. The Rise of Artificial Intelligence under the Lens of Sustainability. Technologies. 2018; 6(4):100. https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6040100Chicago/Turabian Style
Khakurel, Jayden, Birgit Penzenstadler, Jari Porras, Antti Knutas, and Wenlu Zhang. 2018. "The Rise of Artificial Intelligence under the Lens of Sustainability" Technologies 6, no. 4: 100. https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6040100