Next Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Technologies in 2015
Previous Article in Journal
Bright Single-Photon Sources Based on Anti-Reflection Coated Deterministic Quantum Dot Microlenses
Previous Article in Special Issue
Refined 2D and Exact 3D Shell Models for the Free Vibration Analysis of Single- and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Technologies 2016, 4(1), 2;

Fate and Transport of Fire-Born Particles in Porous Media

School of Ecology and Environment Studies, Nalanda University, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bihar 803116, India
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75236, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luciano Feo and Raimondo Luciano
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 31 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Construction)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3620 KB, uploaded 31 December 2015]   |  


A variety of hazardous substances may be generated from the burning materials during fire extinguishing operations, depending on the location, type, and place of the fire. As a result, the fire-extinguishing water may act as a carrier for these nano- and micro-sized fire-born particles, including various types of associated contaminants, and may cause contamination of soil and groundwater resources. While airborne particles from fires have been studied, it is currently not well known what types of nano- and micro-sized contaminants are typically carried by the fire-extinguishing water and how these contaminants can be transported in the natural environment. The main purpose of this study was to increase the understanding about the occurrence and physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles commonly found in discharge water from fire extinguishing operations. The current study was based on collection of original samples from a fire location. A detailed characterization of the particles present in the extinguishing water was performed including both quantification of contaminants associated with the particles (such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as measurement of properties related to the mobility of these particles through porous media. Such mobility properties include size distributions of the particles and the porous media, surface charges and solution chemistry). Results indicate that metals and PAHs are present in both finer and relatively larger fire-born particles. The particles larger than 11 μm were not mobile in porous media. The mobility of the finer particles (<11 μm) was generally high but was dependent on the solution chemistry. Low mobility of large particles in porous media indicates that a large amount of the contamination can likely be trapped in the top soil layer even though the fire extinguishing water infiltrates. View Full-Text
Keywords: fire particles; carbon; transport; retention; straining; porous media fire particles; carbon; transport; retention; straining; porous media

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sharma, P.; Fagerlund, F.; Iverfeldt, U.; Eskebaek, A. Fate and Transport of Fire-Born Particles in Porous Media. Technologies 2016, 4, 2.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Technologies EISSN 2227-7080 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top