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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Effectiveness of Music Interventions to Reduce Test Anxiety in Pharmacy Students

1
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211, USA
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Benerd College, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2021, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010010
Received: 21 November 2020 / Revised: 19 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
Background: The main objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a classroom activity involving music on anxiety associated with preparing for and taking an assessment. Methods: Two hundred and two (202) pharmacy students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions of the experimental study: active music playing (n = 103) versus passive music listening (n = 99). All students completed a pre-test, a mid-test, and a post-test including: an “Attitudes and Perceptions” survey, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (STAI Survey), and a knowledge assessment. Data were analyzed to determine the impact each of the music interventions had on students’ test anxiety. Results: Both types of musical interventions produced similar results in terms of anxiety reduction. Faced with an upcoming test prior to the musical intervention, average state-trait anxiety scores increased; after the musical intervention, state-trait anxiety scores decreased. Conclusions: The use of music helped to reduce test anxiety, even after one brief musical intervention, regardless of whether students passively listened to music or actively played music. View Full-Text
Keywords: music; test anxiety; stress; coping mechanisms; self-awareness music; test anxiety; stress; coping mechanisms; self-awareness
MDPI and ACS Style

Galal, S.; Vyas, D.; Hackett, R.K.; Rogan, E.; Nguyen, C. Effectiveness of Music Interventions to Reduce Test Anxiety in Pharmacy Students. Pharmacy 2021, 9, 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010010

AMA Style

Galal S, Vyas D, Hackett RK, Rogan E, Nguyen C. Effectiveness of Music Interventions to Reduce Test Anxiety in Pharmacy Students. Pharmacy. 2021; 9(1):10. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galal, Suzanne; Vyas, Deepti; Hackett, Rachelle K.; Rogan, Ed; Nguyen, Chloe. 2021. "Effectiveness of Music Interventions to Reduce Test Anxiety in Pharmacy Students" Pharmacy 9, no. 1: 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010010

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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