- Rationale: Articulate a vision, framework, and justification for the IPE plan.
- Outcome-based Goals: State in terms that will allow the assessment of students’ achievement of objectives and interprofessional competencies for collaborative practice.
- Deliberate Design: Intentionally design and sequence a series of classroom, extracurricular, and clinical learning activities integrated into the existing professional curriculum that are longitudinal in nature, spanning the entire length of the program and including content and instructional formats appropriate to the level of the learner and to the outcome-based goals.
- Assessment and Evaluation: Use methods to assess individual learners’ mastery of interprofessional competencies and to evaluate the IPE plan for quality improvement purposes; and if appropriate, education and practice outcomes, research and scholarship.
- The curricular decisions on IPE should be based on research that identifies the best educational strategies. This information is lacking in many areas because the IPE movement is still new, which means that more scholarship is required in this area. Many questions need to be resolved through thoughtful research and vigorous assessment of the various efforts. For example, what will be the typical practice models in the future and what would be the key roles of the various health professions? What are the specific skills needed to become an effective team member? Who are the important individuals that pharmacists need to interact with in the collaborative/integrative care environment? Does the nature of the pharmacist team role change in different practice settings (e.g., institutions vs ambulatory care)? What are the proper links between learner education, effective collaborative/integrative practice, and positive health outcomes? Resolution of these questions are needed before a valued based IPE curriculum can be successfully implemented.
- Despite our knowledge gaps, a crucial ingredient to any IPE curriculum is the level of discourse with students from other professions. The WHO definition of IPE emphasizes intense interaction of learners from different professions directed toward joint problem solving exercises . The key for pharmacy curricular planners is deciding the priority of formal contact with a multitude of professions given the inherent logistical challenges. ACPE’s standard 11 states that the “curriculum prepares all students to provide entry-level, patient-centered care in a variety of practice settings as a contributing member of an interprofessional team. In the aggregate, team exposure includes prescribers as well as other healthcare professionals” . This standard is helpful because it recognizes the medication management focus of pharmacy practice. However, it does not address the value of interactions with professionals who are not prescribers e.g., social work). These interactions should be based on their value to enhancing the perspective/knowledge of pharmacy students, not simply their educational accessibility. Co-location of these schools on the same campus is desirable but not necessary; it is appropriate to meet with students from other professions through specific collaborating institutions or through regional networks [9,36,37].
- The IPE emphasis should be on team building skills not just individual competencies . The models used to support the rationale for interprofessional education emphasize the value of health professional teamwork in creating positive health outcomes [1,2,27]. Thus, popular team building techniques such as TeamSTepps  or the Interprofessional Collaborator Assessment Rubric (ICAR)  should be used extensively in the teaching process in order to emphasize group development. The focus is on educating pharmacy students to engage in shared decision making, joint accountability for patient care and population health .
- Pharmacy educators need to accept, endorse, and participate in a multi-professional approach to teaching their students. These actions may consist of acquiring a new set of teaching skills. These skills include effective facilitation of formal team based learning, use of technology such as simulations, or creating/managing online multi-professional forums. There also must be a willingness to teach non-pharmacy learners and to encourage other professionals to instruct pharmacy students [28,31,35,41,42].
Conflicts of Interest
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