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Scoping Pharmacy Students’ Learning Outcomes: Where Do We Stand?

1
CBIOS-Universidade Lusófona Research Center for Biosciences and Health Technologies, Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal
2
iMed.ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2019, 7(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7010023
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Education; Competency and Beyond)
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Abstract

Background: The professional abilities of graduate pharmacists have been associated with pharmacy undergraduates’ educational settings and features. This study aimed to perform a scoping review on how students’ learning outcomes are achieved, including learning assessment strategies, focusing on current pharmacy practice education. Methods: Relevant keywords, e.g., “pharmacy practice”, “(students or undergraduates)” and “outcomes” were browsed in Public/Publisher MEDLINE, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Directory of Open Access Journals, and other relevant databases for recently published sources (2018 and 2017). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria were followed to assure the scoping quality. All types of students’ learning outcomes were addressed for indexed publications in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Reviews, descriptive studies and commentaries were excluded. Study data are presented in tables comprising objectives, methods, number of participants and main research findings. Results: Overall, 100 studies were identified and 22 were selected. The selected studies were distributed into seven main topics: real practices (n = 9); active-learning strategies (n = 5); comparisons between different teaching pedagogies (n = 3); pharmacy curriculum (n = 2); and other evaluations (n = 3). Conclusions: Studies on pharmacy students’ learning outcomes are limited. Pharmacy undergraduates’ performance was dependent on the learning strategies and extension of syllabus implementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacy students; pharmacy pharmaceutical undergraduates; learning outcomes; academic performance; education assessment; pharmacy practice; active-learning; learning methodologies pharmacy students; pharmacy pharmaceutical undergraduates; learning outcomes; academic performance; education assessment; pharmacy practice; active-learning; learning methodologies
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Pires, C.; Cavaco, A. Scoping Pharmacy Students’ Learning Outcomes: Where Do We Stand? Pharmacy 2019, 7, 23.

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