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Article

Reflexive and Reciprocal Encoding in the Australian Mixed Language, Light Warlpiri

1
School of Literature, Languages and Linguistics, College of Arts and Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia
2
School of Social Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juana M. Liceras and Raquel Fernández Fuertes
Languages 2021, 6(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6020105
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Australian Languages Today)
Mixed languages combine significant amounts of grammatical and lexical material from more than one source language in systematic ways. The Australian mixed language, Light Warlpiri, combines nominal morphology from Warlpiri with verbal morphology from Kriol (an English-lexified Creole) and English, with innovations. The source languages of Light Warlpiri differ in how they encode reflexives and reciprocals—Warlpiri uses an auxiliary clitic for both reflexive and reciprocal expression, while English and Kriol both use pronominal forms, and largely have separate forms for reflexives and reciprocals. English distinguishes person and number in reflexives, but not in reciprocals; the other source languages do not distinguish person or number. This study draws on naturalistic and elicited production data to examine how reflexive and reciprocal events are encoded in Light Warlpiri. The study finds that Light Warlpiri combines near-maximal distinctions from the source languages, but in a way that is not a mirror of any. It retains the person and number distinctions of English reflexives and extends them to reciprocals, using the same forms for reflexives and reciprocals (like Warlpiri). Reflexives and reciprocals occur within a verbal structure (perhaps under influence from Warlpiri). The results show that a mixed language can have discrete contributions from three languages, that the source languages can influence different subsystems to different extents, and that near-maximal distinctions from the source languages can be maintained. View Full-Text
Keywords: Warlpiri; Light Warlpiri; reflexive; reciprocal; Australia; endangered language; Pama-Nyungan; Kriol; mixed language; language contact Warlpiri; Light Warlpiri; reflexive; reciprocal; Australia; endangered language; Pama-Nyungan; Kriol; mixed language; language contact
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MDPI and ACS Style

O’Shannessy, C.; Brown, C. Reflexive and Reciprocal Encoding in the Australian Mixed Language, Light Warlpiri. Languages 2021, 6, 105. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6020105

AMA Style

O’Shannessy C, Brown C. Reflexive and Reciprocal Encoding in the Australian Mixed Language, Light Warlpiri. Languages. 2021; 6(2):105. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6020105

Chicago/Turabian Style

O’Shannessy, Carmel, and Connor Brown. 2021. "Reflexive and Reciprocal Encoding in the Australian Mixed Language, Light Warlpiri" Languages 6, no. 2: 105. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6020105

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