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Competition Strategies during Writing in a Second Language: Age and Levels of Complexity

1
Psychology Research Centre (CIP), Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa Luís de Camões,1169-023 Lisbon, Portugal
2
FCT-Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, 1249-074 Lisbon, Portugal
3
Department of Psychology, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa Luís de Camões, 1169-023 Lisbon, Portugal
4
CIE, ISPA—Instituto Universitário, 1149-041 Lisbon, Portugal
Languages 2019, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4010011
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract

(1) Background: Research in second language (L2) writing in the European context is an emerging tendency in L2 studies. European countries have become new hosts to immigrants in very recent years and new applied research is needed to aid schools in their inclusion process. (2) Method: This study examined differences in writing performance by comparing 99 immigrant students in Portugal between 7 and 17 years of age. They were assessed in six distinct aspects by means of a written essay in order to perceive how maturity and language groups impact competencies such as lexicon, grammar, sociolinguistics and use of strategies. (3) Results: The results were examined according to the competition model of MacWhinney and Bates (1989; MacWhinney 2005) and concluded that older students wrote more proficient essays. First language (L1) and parallel instruction in L1 were examined as covariates against their effects. (4) Discussion: Students who received parallel instruction in their L1 had better results in L2 writing, but only age-produced significant differences will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: second language writing; unified competition model; cognitive interdependence; immigrants in Portugal; age determinants second language writing; unified competition model; cognitive interdependence; immigrants in Portugal; age determinants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Figueiredo, S. Competition Strategies during Writing in a Second Language: Age and Levels of Complexity. Languages 2019, 4, 11.

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