Next Article in Journal
Development of On-Board Tilt Mirror Calibration Mechanism without Holding and Release Mechanism
Next Article in Special Issue
Selective Simulated Annealing for Large Scale Airspace Congestion Mitigation
Previous Article in Journal
Orbital Design and Control for Jupiter-Observation Spacecraft
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sensitivity Analysis of Maximum Circulation of Wake Vortex Encountered by En-Route Aircraft

This is an early access version, the complete PDF, HTML, and XML versions will be available soon.

Article

Multimodal Analysis of Eye Movements and Fatigue in a Simulated Glass Cockpit Environment

1
Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 202 West Boyd Street, Norman, OK 73019, USA
2
Human Factors Engineering Lab, Microsoft, 5069 154th Place NE, Redmond, WA 98052, USA
3
Department of Computer Science, Kent State University, 800 East Summit Street, Kent, OH 44240, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Schultz
Aerospace 2021, 8(10), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8100283
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aircraft Operations and CNS/ATM)
Pilot fatigue is a critical reason for aviation accidents related to human errors. Human-related accidents might be reduced if the pilots’ eye movement measures can be leveraged to predict fatigue. Eye tracking can be a non-intrusive viable approach that does not require the pilots to pause their current task, and the device does not need to be in direct contact with the pilots. In this study, the positive or negative correlations among the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) measures (i.e., reaction times, number of false alarms, and number of lapses) and eye movement measures (i.e., pupil size, eye fixation number, eye fixation duration, visual entropy) were investigated. Then, fatigue predictive models were developed to predict fatigue using eye movement measures identified through forward and backward stepwise regressions. The proposed approach was implemented in a simulated short-haul multiphase flight mission involving novice and expert pilots. The results showed that the correlations among the measures were different based on expertise (i.e., novices vs. experts); thus, two predictive models were developed accordingly. In addition, the results from the regressions showed that either a single or a subset of the eye movement measures might be sufficient to predict fatigue. The results show the promise of using non-intrusive eye movements as an indicator for fatigue prediction and provides a foundation that can lead us closer to developing a near real-time warning system to prevent critical accidents.
Keywords: multimodal analysis; fatigue; eye movements; eye tracking; psychomotor vigilance task; entropy; expertise; pilot; prediction multimodal analysis; fatigue; eye movements; eye tracking; psychomotor vigilance task; entropy; expertise; pilot; prediction
MDPI and ACS Style

Naeeri, S.; Kang, Z.; Mandal, S.; Kim, K. Multimodal Analysis of Eye Movements and Fatigue in a Simulated Glass Cockpit Environment. Aerospace 2021, 8, 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8100283

AMA Style

Naeeri S, Kang Z, Mandal S, Kim K. Multimodal Analysis of Eye Movements and Fatigue in a Simulated Glass Cockpit Environment. Aerospace. 2021; 8(10):283. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8100283

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naeeri, Salem, Ziho Kang, Saptarshi Mandal, and Kwangtaek Kim. 2021. "Multimodal Analysis of Eye Movements and Fatigue in a Simulated Glass Cockpit Environment" Aerospace 8, no. 10: 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8100283

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop