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The Bird Strike Challenge

Control & Simulation Department, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands
Institute of Flight Guidance, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Lilienthalplatz 7, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Aerospace 2020, 7(3), 26;
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 26 February 2020 / Accepted: 9 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Air Transportation—Operations and Management)
Collisions between birds and aircraft pose a severe threat to aviation and avian safety. To understand and prevent these bird strikes, knowledge about the factors leading to these bird strikes is vital. However, even though it is a global issue, data availability strongly varies and is difficult to put into a global picture. This paper aims to close this gap by providing an in-depth review of studies and statistics to obtain a concise overview of the bird strike problem in commercial aviation on an international level. The paper illustrates the factors contributing to the occurrence and the potential consequences in terms of effect on flight and damage. This is followed by a presentation of the risk-reducing measures currently in place as well as their limitations. The paper closes with an insight into current research investigating novel methods to prevent bird strikes. View Full-Text
Keywords: airport; air traffic management; aviation; bird strike; operations; risk; safety; wildlife management airport; air traffic management; aviation; bird strike; operations; risk; safety; wildlife management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Metz, I.C.; Ellerbroek, J.; Mühlhausen, T.; Kügler, D.; Hoekstra, J.M. The Bird Strike Challenge. Aerospace 2020, 7, 26.

AMA Style

Metz IC, Ellerbroek J, Mühlhausen T, Kügler D, Hoekstra JM. The Bird Strike Challenge. Aerospace. 2020; 7(3):26.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Metz, Isabel C., Joost Ellerbroek, Thorsten Mühlhausen, Dirk Kügler, and Jacco M. Hoekstra. 2020. "The Bird Strike Challenge" Aerospace 7, no. 3: 26.

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