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Departure and Arrival Routes Optimization Near Large Airports

Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile (ENAC), Université Fédérale de Toulouse, 7 Avenue Edouard Belin, FR-31055 Toulouse CEDEX, France
Mathematical Institute of Toulouse, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, F-31330 Toulouse, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Aerospace 2019, 6(7), 80;
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aircraft Trajectory Design and Optimization)
PDF [2521 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


The bottleneck of today’s airspace is the Terminal Maneuvering Areas (TMA), where aircraft leave their routes to descend to an airport or take off and reach the en-route sector. To avoid congestion in these areas, an efficient design of departure and arrival routes is necessary. In this paper, a solution for designing departure and arrival routes is proposed, which takes into account the runway configuration, the surroundings of the airport and operational constraints such as limited slopes or turn angles. The routes consist of two parts: a horizontal path in a graph constructed by sampling the TMA around the runway, to which is associated a cone of altitudes. The set of all routes is optimized by the Simulated Annealing metaheuristic. In the process and at each iteration, each route is computed by defining adequately the cost of the arcs in the graph and then searching a path on it. The costs are chosen so as to avoid zigzag behaviors as much as possible. Two tests were performed, one on an instance taken from the literature and the other on an artificial problem designed specifically to test this approach. The obtained results are satisfying with regard to the current state of air operations management and constraints. View Full-Text
Keywords: SID STAR design; simulated annealing; global optimization SID STAR design; simulated annealing; global optimization

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chevalier, J.; Delahaye, D.; Sbihi, M.; Marechal, P. Departure and Arrival Routes Optimization Near Large Airports. Aerospace 2019, 6, 80.

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